International Civil Liberties Monitoring Group
November 30, 2018
Canadian lawyer says he and his refugee clients have been persecuted since hiding Edward Snowden
The National Post 28/11/2018 - In the two years since the story of Snowden’s exodus became public, the refugees and Tibbo have faced what appears to be a broad campaign of harassment and intimidation, the full scope of which has never before been reported. Various Hong Kong authorities strenuously deny there has been any concerted or politically motivated targeting of the Snowden group. But days after the news stories appeared revealing the refugees’ role in Snowden’s escape, their asylum cases — all instigated at different times and on hold for years — were suddenly reactivated together, and rejected on the same day. The migrants were effectively cut off from social assistance in a city where asylum seekers are barred from working, while foreign police with a grim history of human-rights abuses showed up in Hong Kong to try to track some of them down. Tibbo himself faced escalating pressure from the authorities. The legal-aid organizations that funded the refugee cases choked off payments and questioned his professionalism, while Hong Kong’s legal regulator peppered the lawyer with disciplinary charges after a spotless 15-year career in the territory. There are a number of reasons why Hong Kong officials — or their overseers in Beijing — might want to hound the group, Tibbo said, including that their tale has legitimized and drawn embarrassing attention to refugee claimants who have long been treated abysmally in the territory. And any country harbouring a secret surveillance apparatus, he speculated, would see Snowden and his enablers as a threat. “This is retaliation at its most brazen,” Snowden himself told the Post via text message from his temporary refuge in Russia. “You can’t look at something like this without getting a sense that the mask has dropped… (and) there’s a machine that would burn everything we love to the ground without a tear if it meant making a problem go away.” Read more - Lire plus
Comments on the UN Committee against Torture's review of Canada in Geneva
Facebook 23/11/2018 - Last week, Canada's implementation of the Convention against Torture was examined by t he UN Committee against Torture (CAT). The UN CAT's "review of Canada's record has wrapped up with responses from the Canadian delegation to the Committee's long, long list of concerns and questions. Particularly troubling to hear the government continue to resist calls for the Canada/US Safe Third Country Agreement to be suspended, insisting that the US remains a "safe country" for refugees, has a “robust” asylum system and meets a "high standard" of human rights protection. All of that with an assurance that the government has analyzed recent developments in the United States. One scratches one's head in wonder as to what it will take to shake the government from this view? " says Alex Neve, Secretary General of Amnesty International Canada . Source 

Protect the Inlet 22/11/2018 - Several more pipeline opponents were sentenced to jail today, and 85-year old Joanne Manley, the oldest Protector jailed for blockading construction on the now stalled Trans Mountain pipeline and tanker project, received a fine of $2,000 and 14 days of house arrest. “Facing 14 days in jail frightens me, but a climate catastrophe frightens me more,” said Manley, before her sentencing. “The Trans Mountain Pipeline and tanker project will be the final nail in the coffin for BC’s beloved Orcas, our Southern Resident whales. If there’s an oil spill like what happened to Newfoundland last week, Vancouver harbour and our coastal waters will be poisoned. I made a decision to do whatever I could to stop the pipeline – for every child and grandchild, for the Orcas, and for this planet.” While the Crown recommended a 30-day conditional sentence of house arrest and a $2,000 fine, defence counsel Robert Janes asked for a conditional sentence of 7 to 14 days of house arrest based on mitigating factors like health. Judge Affleck then sentenced Manley to a conditional sentence of 14 days of house arrest and a $2,000 fine to be paid by January 31, 2019. Ronald Berezan, Jo Ann Murray, and Judith Rees-Thomas were sentenced today to 7 days in jail and taken into custody immediately. Danika Dinsmore was also given a conditional sentence of 7 days home detention and 150 hours of community service due to mitigating factors. All four Protectors were arrested May 18. Earlier today, two defendants were in court on an  application to recuse  Judge Affleck due to bias. No ruling was made, as the judge reserved judgment. Government of Canada corporation Trans Mountain is also taking an active role in persecuting pipeline opponents. Tomorrow, defendants Lini Hutchings and Reverend Laurel Dykstra face sentencing for 7 days in jail on civil contempt charges, as well as Trans Mountain’s legal costs. The Crown corporation has not revealed the total amount it is seeking to cover legal costs. These charges were previously dropped by prosecution and Kinder Morgan, but Trans Mountain Corporation opted to pick up the suit after the Government of Canada purchased the pipeline and tanker project. Read more - Lire plus
Matthew Behrens: Canada's Saudi weapons sales a moral race to the bottom 29/11/2018 - Suppose you discovered that a neighbour was employing 50 drug dealers at the local elementary school. Each dealer was paid good, taxable wages and benefits, and their faces were featured in ads expressing great pride in their work to make the local economy strong and stable. The drug lord himself was donating munificently to the local United Way, speaking at service clubs about the importance of keeping kids off drugs, and shushing off protesting do-gooders by claiming there was no use calling the police on him, because even if his operation were to be taken down, someone else would just take his place. That sickening conundrum pretty much sums up the current status of the Canadian weapons industry and, specifically, London, Ontario's General Dynamics Land Systems plant, which is providing $15 billion in killer weapons to the Saudi regime to repress women at home and mercilessly slaughter civilians in neighbouring Yemen. The company is seen as a good corporate citizen for donating to local charities and for helping hundreds keep food on the table. And besides, it's Ottawa that made the call to proceed with the weapons deal. Meanwhile in Ottawa, Liberal spin masters are struggling to keep up with an ever-growing list of Saudi atrocities: the genocide of Yemenis being  committed , in part, with Canadian equipment, the daily work of enforcing Saudi  gender apartheid , the beheading and dismembering of  opposition journalists , and the detention and torture of women's rights  activists . Media lines are manufactured for political leaders who, with furrowed brows and dour faces, express their profound misgivings over the latest developments. Indeed, as the Liberal leads on the continued sale, production, and export of $15 billion in killer weaponry to the Saudi regime, the Freeland-Trudeau duo have twisted themselves into so contorted an ethical pretzel that they will likely suffer permanent muscle spasms. With each new reported Saudi atrocity, Canadian leaders dig in their heels and issue increasingly earnest statements about "troubling" revelations, respect for human rights and the rule of law, and their "frustration" over an issue that they refuse to directly address. Their justifications for failing to take any action -- halting arms sales, withdrawing an ambassador, imposing economic sanctions -- have been part of a moral race to the bottom in which crass arguments about financial penalties, secret contracts, and being boxed in by the Harper Conservatives provide poor cover for complicity in genocide. While Trudeau has complained that cancelling Canada's contribution to the brutal suppression of women and the murderous terror campaign being waged in Yemen could cost $1 billion (small change compared to his $4.5-billion investment in a leaky pipeline or $9.2 billion in a lethal megadam at Muskrat Falls), he  told  Tor onto reporters last month that the whole thing is "incredibly frustrating." Read more - Lire plus

EXCLUSIVE: Secret documents say Canada’s no-fly list poses ‘national security risk,’ but a fix is still years away
Global News 29/11/2018 - Canada’s so-called “no-fly list” presents both “national security and privacy risks,” according to documents created by Public Safety Canada and obtained by Global News through an access to information request. But despite the seriousness of these risks, Canada is still roughly two years or more away from fixing problems with the current system. Other documents — including some marked as “SECRET” — describe possible changes the government plans to make to the existing screening process. It says these changes will reduce the risk of “listed individuals” being allowed to board planes, while also leading to “reduced national security risks related to the list being shared with third parties,” such as foreign and domestic airlines. Once implemented, the new system will also lead to “enhanced fairness” for Canadians falsely identified as being on the list — including children — the documents said. [...] “The fact that these lists exist at all means they were always going to be shared with airlines in countries who might or might not be our allies,” said Brenda McPhail, director of privacy and surveillance at the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. “[Canadians] whose information is being shared on one of these controversial and consequential lists ought to — at a minimum — know that their government has taken adequate security precautions,” she said. While anyone who law enforcement believes may pose a threat to air safety [but not to trains or buses or malls or arenas??] or who might travel abroad to commit terrorist acts can be put on the list, getting off the list when falsely identified is far more difficult, she said. This, combined with the fact that Public Safety apparently has concerns with the way information is being shared, should be enough for the government to reconsider the list’s continued use, she says. “If the purpose of this list is to protect our national security and it is failing… then it’s hard to justify the existence of the list,” McPhail said. Read more - Lire plus

RCMP officers given permission to break the law a record 73 times in 2017, report shows
CBC News 25/11/2018 - RCMP officers were given permission to break the law 73 times on the job last year — the highest number on record — according to a new report. Police officers are not immune from criminal liability while doing their jobs, but a decade-old tweak to the Criminal Code allows for a temporary dispensation during investigations. The provisions are subject to a legal requirement of reasonableness and proportionality. High-ranking officials can grant permission if they believe breaking the law could save someone's life, protect the identity of an undercover officer or save evidence from being destroyed. In 2017, senior officials gave the green light to 94 scenarios, resulting in the 73 committed crimes. [...] On average, they've been authorized to break the law about six times a year, making the 2017 calendar year an anomaly. The only other year that saw a spike was 2015, when 20 crimes were committed in the name of anti-corruption and terrorism-related investigations. During a 2013 terrorism investigation, officers were given authority to provide and make "property or services for terrorist purposes." Neither Public Safety officials nor the RCMP would explain why 2017 saw a huge spike. Read more - Lire plus

Family Members and Allies of Mariano Abarca Denounce Nine Years of Impunity for His Assassination
MiningWatch Canada 26/11/2018 - On Monday, family members of Mariano Abarca, along with allied local and national organizations in Mexico, held a press conference in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas to announce that they have filed a legal action on constitutional grounds (an  amparo ) to demand a full investigation into Abarca’s death. They also reported to Chiapas press that they recently filed their arguments with the Federal Court of Canada as part of a judicial review, calling for an investigation into whether support that the Canadian Embassy in Mexico provided for Blackfire Exploration may have heightened the danger Abarca faced in the lead-up to his murder. They emphasized their determination to continue fighting for justice for this crime. Read more - Lire plus 
Fears China's internment camps could spread as area home to Muslim minority signs 'anti-terror' deal
The Telegraph 29/11/2018 - Fears are growing that China's internment camps could spread across the country as a province home to a two-million-strong Muslim minority signs an "anti-terrorism" agreement with Xinjiang, an area which has seen a significant crackdown on Muslims. Local authorities in Ningxia province, home to the Hui Muslim minority, have signed a "cooperation anti-terrorism agreement" with Xinjiang officials to "learn from the latter’s experiences in promoting social stability,” according to a Chinese state media report. As part of those efforts, Zhang Yunsheng, the Communist party head of Ningxia, has gone “to study and investigate how Xinjiang fights terrorism and legally manages religious affairs.” “These are good reasons to be worried that the Xinjiang model would spread to other regions... with grave consequences for religious freedoms,” said Maya Wang, a senior researcher on  China for Human Rights Watch. Loudspeakers on mosques have reportedly been removed as the call to prayer is now banned to reduce “noise pollution", and mosques deemed to be in “Arab-style” are no longer allowed. There have also been reports of Arabic script being removed, bans on fasting during religious holidays, and restrictions on halal food said Wang. In August, hundreds of  Huis protested  a government demolition of a mosque. ​ Similar religious restrictions on Muslims were put in place in Xinjiang under a campaign led by Xi Jinping, China’s president, to crackdown on religious expression across the country over the last few years. More recently, a growing body of evidence of concentration camps in Xinjiang has been disclosed by former detainees, human rights experts and foreign governments. The UN estimates as many as one million Uighurs, a Muslim minority in Xinjiang, are being held in those camps. About a dozen foreign governments, including the UK and the US, have denounced Beijing for these camps, calling for them to be closed. Read more - Lire plus 
UK Home Office 'wrongly tried to deport 300 skilled migrants'
The Guardian 23/11/2018 - The Home Office has wrongly tried to force at least 300 highly skilled migrants to leave Britain under an immigration rule used in part to tackle terrorists and those judged to be a threat to national security, government figures show. The figures, revealed in a governmental review of its use of the controversial 322(5) provision, also suggest that up to 87 highly skilled migrants – including teachers, doctors, lawyers, engineers and IT professionals – have actually been wrongly forced to leave the UK under the terrorism-related legislation. A further 400 people may have been affected. They are largely people who have lived in the UK for a decade or more and have British-born children. Many were given just 14 days to leave and were no longer eligible for a visa to visit the UK or any other country. The Home Office directly identified 56 cases where a formal reconsideration of its decision to make people leave was required. This included 37 cases where “we concluded … that it is appropriate to give the applicant the benefit of any remaining doubt and grant indefinite leave to remain”. But the review also shows 143 cases where people won on appeal in the first-tier tribunal and 101 cases that were won in the upper tribunal, at judicial review. The number of those wrongly affected is likely to be substantially higher as the review only considered cases between January 2015 and May 2018. In addition, the first-tier tribunal has 372 cases outstanding and another 242 cases that could be allowed, which suggests that about a further 400 people could have been wrongly affected. All the victims were denied the right to work, rent property or use the NHS during their appeals. Some chose to leave the UK but many of those who chose to stay and fight their cases were forced into destitution, debt and mental health issues, with some considering suicide, the review found. Children had suffered severe trauma and their parents feared it would have a life-long impact on them. Read more - Lire plus 
Children 'Screaming and Coughing in the Mayhem' as Trump Border Patrol Fires Tear Gas Into Mexico
Common Dreams 25/11/2018 - After Central American migrants approached the U.S.-Mexico border on Sunday to  call attention to awful shelter conditions and request asylum , U.S. Border Patrol agents reportedly fired tear gas into Mexico, forcing parents with toddlers to flee. "Children were screaming and coughing in the mayhem," the Associated Press  reported . "On the U.S. side of the fence, shoppers streamed in and out of an outlet mall." Earlier on Sunday,  U.S. authorities closed off  both directions of the San Ysidro port of entry, which is one of the largest border crossings between the U.S. and Mexico. "Imagine having tear gas launched at you after escaping gang violence/poverty while carrying your child," Juan Escalante, a columnist at the Huffington Post, wrote on Twitter. The demonstrations by Central American asylum seekers came amid reports that the Trump administration is looking to cut a deal with the newly-elected Mexican government to keep migrants out of the U.S. until their asylum claims are fully processed. Read more - Lire plus

Families are still being separated at the border, months after “zero tolerance” was reversed
The Texas Tribune 27/11/2018 - The Trump administration has quietly resumed separating immigrant families at the border, in some cases using vague or unsubstantiated allegations of wrongdoing or minor violations against the parents, including charges of illegally re-entering the country, as justification. Over the last three months, lawyers at Catholic Charities, which provides legal services to immigrant children in government custody in New York, have discovered at least 16 new separation cases. They say they have come across such instances by chance and via their own sleuthing after children were put into temporary foster care and shelters with little or no indication that they arrived at the border with their parents. ProPublica stumbled upon one more case late last month after receiving a call from a distraught Salvadoran father who had been detained in South Texas, and whose 4-year-old son, Brayan, had literally been yanked from his grasp by a Customs and Border Protection agent after they crossed the border and asked for asylum. Julio, the father, asked to be identified only by his first name because he was fleeing gang violence and worried about the safety of relatives back home. “I failed him,” said Julio, 27, sobbing uncontrollably. “Everything I had done to be a good father was destroyed in an instant.” Read more - Lire plus

Liberté, Egalité, Absurdity: French anti-terror laws are robbing people of their freedom
euronews 22/11/2018 - A decade ago, Kamel – a 44-year-old man originally from Algeria - was subjected to an assigned residence order, which effectively put him under indefinite house arrest. Under the measure, he is confined to a town chosen for him by the government. After being moved six times, he is now in Saint-Jean-d'Angély, separated from his family by more than 400km. He lives in a non-descript highway motel approved by the local authority, and must report to the local police station three times a day. At night, he is not allowed to leave his motel due to a curfew. Kamel’s days are rigidly organised around his journeys to the police station and his curfew – he risks prison if he slips up. “I feel like the main character in the film Groundhog Day, reliving the same day over and over again,” he tells me. “Even prison is less severe than this.” And he should know. In 2005, Kamel was convicted for a terrorism offence and sentenced to imprisonment. During his prosecution, he was stripped of his French nationality. He spent six years in prison but, despite having served his sentence, he was not allowed to walk free upon release. Instead, the French authorities ordered him to leave the country. However, due to the fact that he would face torture and ill-treatment in Algeria, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that France could not send him there. French law allows the government to impose assigned residence orders on foreign nationals who, like Kamel, cannot return to their country of nationality. And so began an ordeal that has left him languishing in a legal limbo that has rendered a normal life impossible. Kamel is not alone in this injustice. While administrative control measures have long been used in cases of foreign nationals like Kamel, such measures have only recently become a key tool in France’s counter-terrorism arsenal. At first only available as an exceptional measure under the state of emergency, counter-terrorism control orders were brought into the ordinary legal system in October 2017. The Minister of Interior may impose such orders: “for the sole purpose of preventing the commission of terrorist acts.” Individuals are targeted on the basis of broad and vague criteria. The person subject to the order typically does not know the evidence against them unless they appeal the order. Even if they do appeal, they do not get access to the full case against them and face further obstacles to justice. [...] These measures are inherently unjust. Pre-emptive justice – penalising someone for what they might do, and not what they have done – is not justice at all. If the authorities suspect someone of wrongdoing, they should investigate and, if there is enough evidence, prosecute them. By concentrating power in the hands of the government - completely outside of the normal criminal justice system - administrative control measures are open to abuse and discriminatory application, including toward Muslims. By bypassing the courts, administrative measures deny people the chance to prove their innocence and permit the government to penalise individuals without having to prove their guilt. The increased use of administrative measures in the counter-terrorism context goes beyond France and has seen an alarming increase in recent years. Last year, the  Dutch parliament passed a law  allowing the government to impose control orders for national security reasons on any person they claim “can be associated with terrorist activities” or the support thereof. A  bill currently going through the Swiss parliament empowers police to impose restrictions, like bans on contact with certain individuals, on “potentially dangerous persons” without having to charge them with any crime. This law mirrors a similar expansion of powers of the German federal criminal police in May 2017. The vague nature of these preventative measures, which rely on presumptions of “dangerousness” and potential threats rather than hard evidence, coupled with persistent stereotyping of Muslims across Europe, opens the door to discrimination and abuse. Disturbingly, these administrative orders are just part of a wider raft of anti-terror laws introduced across Europe in recent years that have had a corrosive effect on the rule of law and have undermined freedoms that we have long taken for granted. Read more - Lire plus 
New Law Could Give U.K. Unconstitutional Access to Americans' Personal Data, Human Rights Groups Warn
The Intercept 26/11/2018 - Nine human rights and civil liberties organizations sent a letter to the U.S. Justice Department today objecting to a potential agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom that would give British law enforcement broad access to data held by U.S. technology companies. The possible agreement stems from the Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act, or CLOUD Act, for which Justice Department officials have lobbied since 2016 and which President Donald Trump signed into law in March. In addition to requiring American tech companies to provide data on U.S. citizens when served with a warrant, the CLOUD Act allows for so-called executive agreements between the president and foreign governments. These agreements,  the first of which would be with the United Kingdom , would empower foreign law enforcement agencies to order U.S. tech companies to produce data about individual users without a warrant, so long as the search target is not a U.S. citizen or resident. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, one of the organizations that signed the letter of protest,  has described a possible scenario  for how a U.K. police service might obtain data under the CLOUD Act: “London investigators want the private Slack messages of a Londoner they suspect of bank fraud. The London police could go directly to Slack, a U.S. company, to request and collect those messages. The London police would receive no prior judicial review for this request. The London police could avoid notifying U.S. law enforcement about this request. The London police would not need a probable cause warrant for this collection.” But this form of international data-sharing could put Americans’ privacy at risk and expose citizens to potential Fourth Amendment abuses, critics say. While the CLOUD Act requires that foreign police services not “intentionally target a United States person or a person located in the United States,” the law does not stop foreign police agencies from receiving communications of U.S. citizens or residents. Using the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s example of a Londoner communicating on Slack, any communications between the targeted British citizen and Americans would also be turned over to London police. Read more - Lire plus
Unregulated intelligence sharing poses substantive risks to human rights and to the democratic rule of law
Privacy International 21/11/2018 - Data sharing among states is gaining prominence, particularly in light of the need to coordinate counter-terrorism activities across borders. Privacy International also recognises the importance and benefit of intelligence sharing, for example in the context of fighting terrorism, organised crime or to identify other genuine threats to national security. Intelligence sharing does not per se violate international human rights law. When done appropriately, the sharing of intelligence can enhance human rights protection by helping authorities to identify and curtail threats to the security of its population. But unregulated intelligence sharing does pose substantive risks to human rights and to the democratic rule of law because it allows governments to share information in the absence of clear laws and robust independent oversight. And we know that most governments around the world engage in such unregulated intelligence sharing. In August 2018, the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights confirmed, in his  report  on the right to privacy in the digital age, that “with very few exceptions, legislation has failed to place intelligence-sharing on a proper statutory footing, compliant with the principle of legality under international human rights law.” Read more - Lire plus
Tell the Senate to Fix Bill C-59 before it's too late!
From mass surveillance to the No Fly List, the new National Security Act fails to undo past problems and brings in new powers that threaten our rights & freedoms. Send a message to the Senate that they need to fix Bill C-59.

Share on Facebook & Twitter .
Partagez sur Facebook & Twitter .
NEW Stop Mohamed Harkat's Deportation to Torture
Your letter will now also go to your Member of Parliament. If you've sent a letter already, please send a new one so more MPs act to protect Moe's life and end deportation to torture. If sent back to Algeria, Mohamed Harkat faces detention, torture and even death. No one should be deported to torture. Ever.

Call on Justin Trudeau to ensure justice for Abousfian Abdelrazik
In September 2003, Canadian citizen Abousfian Abdelrazik was arrested in Sudan, while he was back in the country visiting his ailing mother. Over the next three years he was imprisoned for nearly 20 months and was held under house arrest for 12 months. He was denied a lawyer, and was never charged or brought before a judge. There were lengthy periods when he had no family or consular visits. During that time he was badly tortured in three different prisons. Not only did Canada fail to take steps to protect him, CSIS officials frequently obstructed efforts to secure his release. Those actions prolonged his detention, with no concern for the obvious risk of mistreatment he was facing.
Don’t invest my CPP contributions in Trump’s racist agenda
An investigation by the Guardian just revealed that the  Canada Pension Plan (CPP), is pouring millions of your pension dollars into the US private prison corporations that are executing Trump’s cruel and inhumane anti-immigration agenda. That’s your money.  If you’ve ever worked in Canada, you’ve paid contributions to the CPP fund. We can’t let our CPP contributions flow to corporations that are profiting from Trump’s cruel immigration policies.

Tell the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB): Stop investing our savings in private US prison corporations that are executing Trump’s cruel and inhumane anti-immigration agenda.
Parliamentary Petition: Release Edwin Espinal!
We call upon MPs to: 

- Urgently intervene in the case of Edwin Espinal, spouse of Karen Spring of Elmvale, arrested January 19, 2018, on trumped-up charges in the wake of popular protests; and

- Immediately ensure that Honduras release Espinal and four other political prisoners still held in inhumane maximum-security military prisons, and drop all charges against 22 political prisoners.
Remember January 29
On Jan. 29, 2017, a lone gunman entered a mosque in Quebec City and opened fire on dozens of Muslim-Canadian worshipers. By the time the shooting had ended, six had been tragically killed, and 19 more injured.  We, citizens and residents of Canada, call on the government of Canada to henceforth designate January 29th as a National Day of Remembrance and Action on Islamophobia and other forms of religious discrimination  as per the report from Parliament's Heritage Committee.
Five Eyes: Save encryption
Ministers from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the U.S. have gone public with their plans for a huge attack on our personal security.

They want to force companies to crush the encryption that protects our private data and messages. But ordinary people need and use encryption every day, in everything from online banking to personal messaging in apps like WhatsApp.
Tell ministers to stop their attacks, and commit to protecting our privacy and security.
Iran: Release Saeed Malekpour!
Saeed Malekpour, an Iranian national with permanent residency in Canada, has been imprisoned in Iran since his arrest on 4 October 2008. In late 2010, he was initially sentenced to death for “spreading corruption on earth” in relation to a web programme he created for uploading photos which the Iranian authorities said was used on pornographic websites. This was an open source programme and Saeed Malekpour has maintained that the use of this web programme on other websites was without his knowledge. His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 2012.
Les opinions exprimées ne reflètent pas nécessairement les positions de la CSILC - The views expressed do not necessarily reflect the positions of ICLMG.
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