Dr. Tawfik Hamid's "...Just A View"
Also In This Issue
Passive Terrorism: An Analysis of the Phenomenon of Passive Terrorism
ABC's Test for Radical Islam
Op-Eds by Dr. Hamid



Passive Terrorism


An Analysis of the Phenomenon of Passive Terrorism

By Dr. Tawfik Hamid


Note: a version of the above document has been published in the Journal of Counter Terrorism & Homeland Security International Vol.17, No. 1, 2011 www.iacsp.com  


In this article, the author will address the phenomenon of passive terrorism and its relationship with active terrorism.


With the 9/11 attacks and the continued high number of terrorist-related occurrences worldwide (incidents in the US linked to home-grown terrorism actually peaked in 2009) (1), the reaction of the Muslim community against the terrorists has been relatively weak in comparison to other situations in which this community felt that its religion was being insulted. The strong and violent reaction by Muslims in response to the publication of cartoons depicting the prophet Mohamed in a Danish newspaper, on one hand, and the lack of a similar response by this community against radicals such as Bin Laden, on the other, serve as evidence that terrorism can be embodied by much more than simply those people who perpetuate the attacks themselves.

In this article, Dr. Hamid addresses the issue of "passive terrorism" and explains how such rather unresisting attitudes by the Muslim community aggravate the terrorism problem. The possible causes of passive terrorism, its types, and its dynamic interplay with active terrorism are also addressed. The potential implications of passive terrorism are also discussed.


For the purpose of understanding the phenomenon of Islamic terrorism, the author suggests that this phenomenon be viewed and analyzed under the context of the following three categories:

1-     Active attacks

2-     Facilitation 

3-     Passive Terrorism (2) 

Active terrorism is defined by the author as performing intentional violent acts against non-combatants or civilians.  Facilitation and support for Islamic terrorism can take on the forms of ideological, financial, or logistical. Passive terrorism is defined by the author as a form of indirect support for terrorism by silently condoning it or by using tactics that convey a message of support, approval, or encouragement to the active terrorists without actually being involved directly in the attacks themselves. This typically takes the form of hidden cultural messages that can be understood by the radicals but in most circumstances go undetected by outsiders, especially non-Muslim observers.

3- Analysis of the Phenomenon of Passive Terrorism:

One likely factor for support of passive terrorism is the widely-held classical Islamic conception of God that is greatly influenced by 'fear' of his power (3). Furthermore, from a cultural perspective, the Arab world places great emphasis on appearances of strength and weakness. The historical importance of the ancient military conquests to spread the religion (Foutohaat Islameia), in which non-Muslims were greatly defeated, certainly influences this. In fact, ancient Arabic poems, which still have importance in the Muslim world today, glorify and boast of tribal warfare successes. This respect for the role of power and victory has the tendency to make many Muslims happy with acts of terror, as these individuals view such acts as a form of victory over the "infidels." The desire to see this form of Islamic victory, even at a relatively low scale through terror attacks, satisfies to some extent the desire to see Islam as a superior power again (4) and to insert fear into the hearts of the "un-believers" (5). This 'false' feeling of victory further supports the confidence of these Muslims in Islam, as it is promised in the holy text, according to traditional interpretations, that the believers will achieve victory over the non-believers (6). This promise of victory tends to be interpreted in a military sense.

In addition, some in the Muslim world may support the violent acts because they have deep support for the concept of violent Jihad. Jihad is primarily and traditionally taught in mainstream Islamic books as a form of war against the infidels (7). Some of those who support violent Jihad may not be able to participate in the process of fighting themselves because they have earthly responsibilities or they may just prefer the present life to the next life. Both of these factors that prevent a person from participating in violent Jihad are heavily criticized in traditional Islamic teachings (8). This group may feel guilty that they cannot do Jihad for Allah. Therefore, the minimum they could do to support their religion is to send the Jihadists an indirect message of support by avoiding criticism of them.

Some others may remain passive because terrorism in their view may create pressure on the West and force them to give political concessions benefitting the Muslim cause, such as exerting more pressure against Israel in the Arab-Israeli conflict. In this case, the passive support for terrorism would be to achieve a political gain (9).

In addition, the tribal mentality in the Muslim world may also make some unable to criticize their fellow Muslims, as it is shameful for them to publically criticize someone belonging to their own culture. One of the common sayings in the Muslim world that supports this way of thinking is actually a misquoted Hadith of the prophet Mohamed. It says, "support your Muslim brother either he was an oppressor or a victim" (10). This Hadith, as well as the tribal way of thinking, have made many in the Muslim world unwilling to openly criticize their fellow Muslim brothers. 

In other situations (11), some Muslims may be afraid that if they speak against the terrorists, they or their family members could be a target of the attacks.

4-Why Passive Terrorists Avoid Active Verbal Support For the Active Terrorists:

In many cases, verbal support for the terrorists can put a person in difficult circumstances with authorities (12). Voicing approval can also have negative results for a person, whether at work or in the community, especially if this person lives in the West.  In addition, some Muslims may not be expressing their true beliefs out of fear of potential western backlash against Muslim communities. Since a popular desire is for an Islamic system (Sharia Law) to be established in the West by gradually increasing the size of the Muslim population there, the risk of backlash would certainly impede the realization of this dream (13), (14).  

Remaining passive against the terrorists may also increase the likelihood that some Islamic organizations in the West will receive financial support from other Islamic organizations or from individuals in the Muslim world. Furthermore, those who show active verbal support for the terrorists would be exposing themselves as non-moderates, thereby running the risk of losing western financial support given to non-profit   organizations. Therefore, staying passive is a win-win situation. It guarantees support from both the Islamists, who will appreciate and view these organizations' passive attitudes as a form of support for jihad, and from the West, who may mistakenly view these organizations as "moderates" who do not support terrorism (15).

5-Types of Passive Terrorism:

       Lack of Powerful Demonstrations Against the Terrorists:

On one hand, powerful demonstrations erupted in the Muslim world to denounce the publication of cartoons in a Danish newspaper portraying Prophet Mohamed (16), to criticize the pope for citing an anti-Muslim historical phrase (17) (18), and to object to the French government's decision to ban the hijab in high schools (19). Yet on the other hand, since 9/11, there has not been ONE similar demonstration as powerful and passionate against Bin Laden and the other Islamic terrorists that have killed thousands of innocent victims, among which include Muslims (20). In fact, there have been powerful demonstrations in several parts of the Muslim world in support of Bin Laden (21). This disparity only gives the terrorists a "green light" to plan even more attacks.

It is also fair to say that there were a few scattered demonstrations in the Muslim world against terrorism, however, they were very small in number and magnitude   compared to the global nature of the demonstrations described earlier (22,23,24). In fact, the few Muslim demonstrations against terrorism could be attributed to the desire of the Muslim population in certain areas to protect their economical interests or to prevent a backlash against them rather than a genuine stand against Islamic terrorism. If the Muslim's reaction in these demonstrations was genuine against the Islamic terrorists it should have happened immediately after September 11 rather than years after the event.  The delayed reaction to September 11, and the relatively weak and local nature of the former reactions, cast doubt if these few demonstrations were truly and in principle against Islamist terrorism. In other words, Muslims reacted like an 'Umma' (i.e. global reaction of the Muslim world) to defend Islam when they felt it was insulted and on the contrary their reaction was only of a sporadic and a limited nature when it was against Islamism terrorism. This huge discrepancy in  Muslim reaction to different situations further elucidates the problem of passive terrorism.



Denying that Bin Laden and radical Muslims were behind the 9/11 attacks may express either a genuine belief that Muslims were not behind these attacks or may just be a form of passive support for the terrorists.

In the latter case, a moral dilemma exists. Particularly in the West, supporting Bin Laden can put a person in a difficult situation and possibly create backlash against him or against the Muslim community at large.  Meanwhile, if someone were to admit that Bin Laden was actually behind the attacks, this person could very well be pressured on the spot to openly denounce him, and for many Muslims to do so would be paramount to betraying a fellow Muslim brother. In order to avoid this moral dilemma, it is simply easier to deny that Bin Laden was behind 9/11 to begin with.

       Diversionary Tactics:

Another effective method used by the passive terrorists is the intentional use of misleading justifications for the existence of terrorism. Such justifications include poverty, lack of education, the Arab-Israeli conflict, US foreign policy, and lack of democracy in many parts of the Muslim world. However, this could be used to divert the West's attention from the true root cause of the problem, which is the prevalence of radical Islamic teachings in the Muslim world. This form of deception helps the passive terrorists achieve the following things:

1-Decreases pressure on the Muslim world to revise Islamic teachings so that the ideological cause of the terrorism problem does not have to be confronted, thereby allowing radical ideology to grow unopposed.

2-Economic gains: The West may be fooled by these deceptive justifications and thus give more financial support to Muslim countries and organizations, wrongly thinking that such aid will fight poverty and help to end terrorism.

3- Political gains: The West may exert more pressure on Israel if they were to accept the view that the Arab-Israeli conflict is the true cause of Islamic terrorism. The West could also change its foreign policy in a way that is more supportive of the Muslim world.

4-Encourages the West to pressure secular Arab regimes to be more democratic. A potential consequence of such democracy is that Islamist regimes could attain power easier (25). 

It is important to note that the previously-mentioned justifications for terror, such as poverty and US foreign policy, do not answer the really imperative question: If such factors are the true causes of terrorism, why do non-Muslims in the Middle East who live in the same socio-economic and political circumstances as their Muslim neighbors not also contribute to terrorism and suicide bombings? (26)

       Theological Deception:

In the context of this article, this term refers to deceptive and incomplete theological information presented to Westerners to make them less likely to recognize the true threat of radical Islam.  For example, after 9/11 many Islamic organizations and scholars argued that jihad is predominantly taught as a peaceful concept and that it mainly means internal struggle. Even some encyclopedias on terrorism use the same terminology to define Jihad (27). The following hadith of the Prophet Mohamed was typically used by such groups to convey the peaceful understanding of the word jihad: "You have come from the minor jihad to the major jihad."...then he said "it is the striving of the servant against his desires." (28)

Those who used this hadith to convey that jihad is taught as a peaceful concept failed, intentionally or not, to bring to light the following things:

1-According to authoritative Islamic scholars, this hadith is considered to be a weak or non-binding hadith (29).

2- The Prophet said, according to Sahih (accurate) hadith, "I have been commanded (by Allah) to fight all mankind until they testify that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah". According to the science of hadith, this particular passage is agreed upon (i.e. approved by Sahih by Al-Buchary and Muslim ; the two most accurate Hadith books in Sunni Islam ) (30). This level of hadith (Sahih) generally means that it is a very accurate and binding one (unlike the former peaceful hadith).

This concealment of theological facts from westerners to avoid confrontation of the radicalism problem while simultaneously teaching violent values to young Muslims via mainstream Islamic books serves as a form of passive support for terrorism.  This impedes the ability of the West to confront the reality of the terrorism problem.

6- Levels of Denouncement for Wrongdoings in the Muslim World:

Generally speaking, the denouncement of an action or wrongdoing in the Muslim and Arab world can be effective in deterring others from doing it again if it follows certain criteria, which includes the following:

1-     To be directed against a person rather than just the act itself. For example, the Quran did not only denounce adultery, but also warned that the 'persons' who do it will face severe punishment in hell (31). Even the fatwa against Salman Rushdie represents this concept (32).

2-    Uses powerful expressions such as 'Kufr' and 'Redda'. There are several levels of describing mistakes in Arabic and Islamic jargon. In order of less severe to more severe, the following Arabic words could be used to denounce a person who commits a wrongdoing: Khatyea (made a mistake), Muzhneb (committed a minor sin), Faal Fahesha (committed major sin), Mujrim (criminal), Kafer(Infidel), and Murtad (apostate). Denouncing terrorists with weak expressions may serve a political purpose of improving the image of Islam,owever, this is not likely to deter young Muslims from repeating the same act. On the other hand, using the expression 'Murtad' is the most powerful way to denounce the terrorists, as according to traditional Islamic teaching, the ultimate consequence for this is going to hell forever.

3-    Unconditional- Denouncement for the evil nature of the act itself, not because it was 'not beneficial' to Muslims.  The latter implies that it is okay to take a particular action if it is beneficial to Muslims.

4-    Must be general to all acts irrespective of the faith of the victim. Denouncement of acts of terror for killing Muslims is indirect approval of acts of terror that kill non-Muslims.

5-    Does not give any justification for the act.

Deceiving Fatwas:

Analysis of several statements and denouncements for terrorism by leading Islamic organizations and individuals after 9/11 (33) reveals the following:

1-     Almost all of the statements did not mention Bin Laden by name.

2-    None of these fatwas considered Bin Laden and the terrorists as apostates. 

3-    Many of these fatwas denounced killing "innocents" without clearly defining what is meant by this expression. In the context of denouncing terrorism it is vital to clarify that a non-Muslim, or "Kafer" (infidel) is not viewed as an innocent person by many Islamists and leading Islamic scholars. In their view, this person has committed the worst crime imaginable by not following Islam. In fact, those who do not follow Allah and Islam are considered by Islamists to be subhuman who must be fought (34).


These forms of 'deceiving fatwa' serve the purpose of improving the image of Islam in the West without upholding the main role of fatwa, which is, in such circumstances, to deter young Muslims from doing these acts of violence or participating in them in any way ever again.

As noted before, this type of fatwa is a form of "passive terrorism" that sends a message of support to the terrorists and can partially explain to us why the phenomena of violent Jihad and terrorism are still powerful in the mind of many young Muslims. If the leading Muslim scholars issued fatwas that were truly powerful, they can significantly help in deterring young Muslims from participating in terrorism or supporting it (35). 

Let us now take a deep look at some of the well-known fatwas that were issued against terrorism:


1.  Amman statement that was issued by more than 50 leading Islamic scholars to denounce terrorism (36).


� The Fatwa did not mention any terrorist by name. The denouncement was for terrorism (not the terrorists).


� It did not mention killing non-Muslims. The Fatwa only discussed killing Muslims. Failure to clearly mention the killing of non-Muslims is a form of hidden approval for killing the latter.


� The Fatwa stated that "Equally, it is not possible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in Allah the Mighty and Sublime and His Messenger (may Peace and Blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and respects the pillars of Islam and does not deny any 'Maloom Mina Al-Din Bil-Darura' - necessary article of religion." This very last sentence in the Fatwa indirectly conveys a message to the Jihadists that it is OK for them to kill Muslims who deny any "necessary article of the religion," such as those who refuse to practice Islamic or Sharia Law.


2. The Fatwa issued by the Fiqh Council of North America that was supported and endorsed by more than 100 Islamic organizations and individuals in the US, including CAIR (37).

� It did not mention by name Bin Laden or any terrorists who participated and planned the attacks of 9/11.


�It considered terrorism "haram" (forbidden). This level of denouncement put terrorism at the same level as eating pork, which is also "haram" in Islam (38). If the fatwa was truly meant to deter young Muslims from doing terrorism and not just to improve the image of Islam, it should have considered terror or contributions to it as an act of 'kufr' (an act that makes one an infidel). Failure to do so is a form of passive terrorism, leading to these organizations being perceived as moderates in the West even without effectively denouncing the terrorists.


� It only considered the terrorists as "not martyrs" instead of strongly denouncing them by using more powerful expressions such as "apostates." The former expression is weak and does not imply that the terrorists will not be in Paradise or that they will go to hell. In Islam, many non-martyrs, including the Prophet Mohamed himself, will go to paradise (39).


An example of the powerful fatwa is the Fatwa issued by Shaikh Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri against terrorism at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in London on March 2, 2010. In this Fatwa the Shaikh described the terrorists as "Infidels" who will go to "hell" (40, 41). Unfortunately, this rare and late fatwa is not very influential as it was not issued by the most influential Islamic scholars or its leading organizations such as the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). The same principle applies to the Fatwa of apostasy against Bin laden that was issued in Spain four years after Madrid train bombings (42).  If the Fatwa against Bin laden in Spain was truly genuine it should have been issued shortly after September 11 rather than four years later when Muslims in Spain were facing a possible backlash following the Madrid bombings.

Another good example to send a powerful message of disapproval to the terrorists is when Indian Muslims said they did not want the gunmen killed by the security forces during the attacks in Mumbai, but rather to be buried in Muslim cemetaries (as they considered the terrorists non-Muslims) (43). Refusal to burry a Muslim in a Muslim cemetary is extremely powerful message that can deter young Muslims from pursuing the path of terrorism. Unfortunately, this type of powerful reaction against the terrorists was unseen in any Muslim community other than Indian one.  The lack of such a strong reaction by other Muslim communities is suggestive of the presence of passive support for the terrorists in such communities.  It is also noticeable that none of these fatwas were issued in the Arab world which is considered to be the heart of Islam.



1-     Deep understanding of passive forms of terrorism is needed to be able to distinguish between radical and moderate scholars and organizations.  This distinction can allow us to support the moderates instead of giving support to the passive terrorists.

2-    Analysis of the fatwas and other Muslim responses to terrorism can help us evaluate both the extent and the progress of the problem of Islamic radicalism in a given society.

3-    Informing Islamist groups and organizations that pretend to be moderate that their passive support for terrorism is exposed can create some pressure on these organizations to force them to denounce terrorism properly. This can ultimately help in weakening radical Islam.

4-    Issuing strong fatwas against the terrorists needs to be encouraged and promoted within Muslim societies.




(1) the Times Magazine:http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1949329,00.html 

(2) Inside Jihad (book): Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam Page:91-108

(3)See Quran 56:41-57; 37:63-68; 74:26-29; 67:6-8; 52:14-16;47:15.

(4) Radical Muslims typically use Quran 9:33 to promote the need to make Islam superior above all other faiths.

(5) Quran 8:60. 

(6) Quran 37:171-173. 

(7) Quran 9:73; 66:9; 9:29-HadithBukhari:V4B52N196 Minhaj Al-Muslim.

(8) Quran 9:81

(9) Bin laden used the Arab Israeli conflict to justify Islamist terrorism: CNN  http://edition.cnn.com/2010/US/01/24/bin.laden.terror.tape/index.html#cnnSTCText

 (10)  Many in the Muslim world use this Hadith incorrectly as the exact Hadith says "support your Muslim brother either he was an oppressor or a victim. A disciple for the prophet asked him:  How come I can support him while he is an oppressor, the prophet said by stopping him from oppressing others. In addition, the Quran against this bias toward one's own culture in many verses e.g. Quran 4:135 that actually instructed the believers to say the truth even if it is against their own culture.

(11) Death threats to people who speak against Islam include the famous fatwa against Salman Rushdi (author of Satanic Verses) and the death Fatwa against Saiid Al-Qimni (Egyptian author). Targeted killings of vocal people who speak against the radicals include the killing of Farag Fouda (Egyptian author) in Egypt.

(12) Example:  http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/europe/Radical-Islamic-Banned-Britain-12Jan10--81246377.html .

(13) http://communities.canada.com/vancouversun/print.aspx?postid=475218

(14) http://atlasshrugs2000.typepad.com/atlas_shrugs/2009/10/geert-wilders-greeted-with-islam-will-dominate-the-world.html

(15) In the view of the author, Islamic organizations that want to be considered moderate must be able to clearly stand against violent teaching. The author suggest the following test : ABCs Test for Radical Islam (See: Inside Jihad: Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam page:14-15). The test is also available at: http://www.tawfikhamid.com/abcs-test-for-radical-islam/

(16) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4684652.stm

(17) http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,213930,00.html

(18) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5349604.stm

 (19) http://www.nusrah.com/en/contents.aspx?aid=1929

(20) most of them are Muslims: note ref Washington times most victims are Muslims   


(21) http://www.danielpipes.org/74/muslims-love-bin-laden

 (22) http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5008710 

 (23) http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=2067 



(24) http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=3b8_1229080227



(25) Hamas organizations (A radical Islamic movement) won the Palestinian election via democracy


(26) See more detailed analysisInside Jihad :Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam by Tawfik Hamid Page:55-75

(27) Encyclopedia definition of Jihad: Encylopedia of Terrorism by Combs & Slann (See Revised Edition Infobase Publishing page: 165)

(28) This Hadith is reported by Al-Baihaqi and Al-Khateeb in the Tarikh. 

(29)(See: Minhaj Al-Muslim, Volume 2, Page 167).

(30) (See: Minhaj Al-Muslim, Volume 1, Page 402).

(31) {Quran 25:68-69}

(32) The exact wording of the Fatwa of AlKhumini against Salaman Rushdi include the following clear statement against persons not just the act: "I inform the proud Muslim people of the world that the author of the Satanic Verses book which is against Islam, the Prophet and the Koran, and ALL involved in its publication who were aware of its content, are sentenced to death. FATWA issued February, 1989
against Salman Rushdie


 (33) Many of these Fatwa are available at: http://www.cair.com/AmericanMuslims/AntiTerrorism/IslamicStatementsAgainstTerrorism.aspx

(34)  Quran {47:12} and {9:5}   


(35)The recent Fatwa of Sheck Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri which was issued in London 2010 has some powerful elements against the terrorists as it considered that they  will go to hell and that Terrorism is "Kufr" (act that turns a person to be an Infidel): The Fatwa include the following statement: The murders terrorists commit will send them, not to paradise, as often claimed, but to hell. "[Terrorists] are the heroes of hellfire," he thundered. Their actions are not just unlawful but render terrorists kufr, or disbelievers, casting them outside the Islamic faith.

See more details about this Fatwa at:


(36) Amman Statement:http://www.kingabdullah.jo/news/details.php?kn_serial=3409&menu_id=26&lang_hmka1=1

(37) http://www.usislam.org/debate/fatwa.htm

(38) Quran: 2:173; 16:115

(39) Prophet Mohamed himself did not die as Martyr (a well known Islamic historical fact).

(40) http://en.kendincos.net/video-fdnptdj-muslim-scholar-issues-fatwa-against-terrorism.html

(41) http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1969662,00.html#ixzz0kPqHpmWO

(42) http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2005/03/11/fatwa-050311.html

(43) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7758651.stm



Note: a version of the above document has been published in the Journal of Counter Terrorism & Homeland Security International Vol.17, No. 1, 2011 www.iacsp.com  
























































ABC's Test for Radical Islam
The time has come to define Radical Islam. Please ask your local mosque, Islamic Shool, and Islamic organization to clearly, unambiguously and publically denounce the following concepts:

Apostates killing
Beating women and stoning them to death for adultery.
Calling Jews pigs and monkeys.
Declaring war on Non Muslims to spread Islam after offering Non Muslims three options - subjugate to Islam, pay Jizia (a humiliating tax), or be killed.
Enslavement of Other Human Beings.
Fighting and killing Jews before the "End of Days".
Gay Discrimination and Hostility.
A true moderate person or organization must be able to immediately denounce the above concepts and stand publicly and unambiguously against them.
The Muslim world can not expect the world to consider Islam peaceful as long as they teach and promote such tenets.
A clear stand is needed from leading Islamic Scholars all over the world against such teachings.
Op-Eds by Dr. Hamid
An op-ed, is a newspaper article that expresses the opinions of a named writer who is usually unaffiliated with the newspaper's editorial board. For links to some of Dr. Hamid articles, please click on the article name to be forwarded to the external page:
1. The Wall Street Journal:
2. New York Daily News:
3. Hudson Institute: 4. The Jerusalem Post:
Discliamer: The information represented in this newsletter represents only the personal views and opinions of Dr. Tawfik Hamid, and not the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
Dr. Tawfik Hamid

Dr. Tawfik Hamid

Dr. Tawfik Hamid (aka Tarek Abdelhamid), is an Islamic thinker and reformer, and one time Islamic extremist from Egypt. He was a member of a terrorist Islamic organization JI with Dr. Ayman Al-Zawaherri who became later on the second in command of Al-Qaeda. Dr. Hamid is currently a Senior Fellow and Chair of the study of Islamic Radicalism at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
Your support for Dr. Hamid work and efforts is greatly appreciated. Donations via this PayPal link will go to the Chair of Dr. Hamid at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies (a tax deductable (501) C3). Thank you kindly for your support.

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