Third Quarter 2019 (Volume 3)  

Quarterly Update- Arkansas State Veterinarian's Office
Randolph Chick, DVM (501) 823-1733
Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI)
Arkansas accepts paper and most electronic formats (eCVI). Health certificates used to move live animals interstate or international must be completed fully, accurately, and in alignment with the requirements of the destination state or country. Incomplete or inaccurate documents, testing, or vaccinations may result in animals being held at ports, confiscated, destroyed, refused entry, or returned to the premises of origin. At the very least, errors may result in unnecessary delays for your clients or patients. Please work with the destination state Department of Agriculture or animal health authority to determine what interstate requirements might exist for the specific animal movement planned.

When live animals (including germplasm – embryos, semen, etc.) are moved internationally, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has regulatory authority over the certificates for these shipments, called International Health Certificates (IHCs). The need for an IHC as well as APHIS endorsement of an IHC after it has been issued by a clinical veterinarian is dependent on the destination country’s requirements. Known export requirements, including the requirements for export certification and certificates, can be found on APHIS International Regulations website or the APHIS Pet Travel Website at the links below:

Additional information on user fees can be found:

The following are examples of common certificate errors that could affect movement of animals:
  • Failure to include supporting documents such as test results or vaccination certificates (such as a rabies certificate) when submitting a certificate for APHIS endorsement.
  • Issuing veterinarian not being U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Accredited in the state where the CVI/IHC was issued.
  • Issuing veterinarian not having the correct USDA Accreditation credentials; must be a Category II USDA accredited veterinarian to issue IHCs for birds, horses, livestock, food and fiber animals, farm-raised aquaculture, and zoo animals which can transmit livestock diseases of concern.
  • Failure to record a complete name and address of place of origin (consignor) and/or destination (consignee) on the IHC. These must be physical addresses- P.O. boxes cannot be used.
  • Missing certification statements. Always download the most recent form available.
  • Missing or illegible veterinary signature and date.  
  • Timeliness of testing (health certificate or test results were completed outside the required time period).
  • Improper identification of animal, or animal/owner identification on all documents does not match.
  • Inappropriate type of test (i.e. the ELISA test for EIA when the AGID test is required).  
  • Improper correction of mistakes; “white-out” should never be used on official documents. Issuing Veterinarian should line-out and initial any mistakes (contact local APHIS-VS office for advice). 
  • Not enclosing the appropriate user fee with the IHC with certificates submitted for APHIS endorsement.
  • Improper date formats on IHCs (such as European Union, all dates to be formatted DD/MM/YY).
  • Failure to acquire APHIS endorsement of documents that require it.                                                                                    

Electronic CVI Information (eCVI) Providers  
Below are three eCVI Information providers that have come to our attention. Please forward any information you might have for other providers. Most providers charge a fee and offer an array of added features.

AgView CVI Mobile : A mobile app that works on any Apple or Android device. Web page interface for use on any computer with internet access; staff can fill out the form for the veterinarian to sign. Replaces the mCVI app; free fillable PDF form that can be stored on your computer and accessed without Internet access. The app only requires Adobe Reader (free) and takes little effort to get started. It is a great for use in a veterinary clinic - easy to see when the form is completed, just complete the red boxes and you are done. The form needs to be emailed to the State Veterinarian's office within 7 days of the inspection date.

GlobalVetLINK, LLC (GVL® ): Fast, easy eCVI creation and submission for all species. Instant eCVI delivery to animal owners through; easy-to-read standardized certificate layout. It has precise identification including digital photos and brand images. It is approved for use in all 50 States. USDA approved digital signature technology, and mobile capability. FAQ’s located within the " Resource Center " at the top of GVL’s website. Sales contact: 515-817-5703.

Veterinary Services Process Streamlining (VSPS) : A free web based CVI option developed and administered by USDA/APHIS and approved for use in all 50 States. Access requires Level 2 eAuthentication with USDA; which is a registration process that enables users to securely access USDA web applications and services via the internet. This app also offers an online Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), or Coggins, submission form. For more information: .
What’s the biggest feature of Electronic CVIs? They minimize mistakes!

Arkansas Veterinary Diagnostic Lab Corner – A new feature for the Summer Edition
Arkansas Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ADVL), centrally located in Little Rock, operates as part of the Livestock & Poultry Commission of the Arkansas Agriculture Department. The lab completes some 20,000 diagnostic cases each year, plus about 28,000 EIA cases and another 5,000 cases under the National Poultry Improvement Plan. With a staff of around 25, It is a small but busy place.
The lab is also a full-service diagnostic laboratory, housing sections devoted to Clinical Pathology, Microbiology, Histopathology, Necropsy, Toxicology, Serology, and Virology. The caseload involves a broad distribution of species, including production livestock and poultry, horses, companion animals, exotics, and wildlife. The lab also assists animal control and law enforcement agencies from time-to-time in their investigations involving animal welfare.

The lab holds a number of certifications; first and foremost among them is the ISO 17025 accreditation through the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation for a defined scope of biological testing ( #4109.01). It is also a Level 2 laboratory in the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), and is a member of the Veterinary Laboratory Information and Response Network (Vet-LIRN, USDHHS-FDA-CVM). As previously mentioned, it is a member lab of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP). See our Scope of Accreditation here .

ADVL is proud to partner with animal production in Arkansas, with veterinarians in public service and private practice, and with animal owners. Hours of operation: 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., M-F, excluding state holidays. Contact for the AVDL: 501-823-1730 and Fax: 501-907-2410.
For Your Consideration….
Recent flooding in the Arkansas River Valley may set the stage for an increase in vectors for encephalitis and other vector-borne maladies. It is advisable to consider viral encephalitis in animals that present with depression, ataxia or simply low-grade febrile disease.
Clostridial diseases (such as Blackleg, Tetanus) and Anthrax should be considered for animals showing    associated signs on pastures that have recently flooded. Advise caution when clients are dealing with mortality in the floodplain.
Arboviruses Pathogenic for Domestic and Wild Animals
Hubálek, Z . , Rudolf, I . , Nowotny, N . in Adv Virus Res. 2014;89:201-75.
Abstract: The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man.

Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus).

They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick-borne (louping ill and tick-borne encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Tyuleniy fever, Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado fever, Bhanja fever, Thogoto fever, African swine fever), mosquito-borne (Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitides, Highlands J disease, Getah disease, Semliki Forest disease, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, Usutu disease, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu disease/duck egg-drop syndrome, Wesselsbron disease, La Crosse encephalitis, Snowshoe hare encephalitis, Cache Valley disease, Main Drain disease, Rift Valley fever, Peruvian horse sickness, Yunnan disease), sandfly-borne (vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, New Jersey, and Alagoas, Cocal disease), midge-borne (Akabane disease, Aino disease, Schmallenberg disease, Shuni disease, African horse sickness, Kasba disease, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki disease, equine encephalosis, bovine ephemeral fever, Kotonkan disease), and cimicid-borne (Buggy Creek disease).

Animals infected with these arboviruses regularly develop a febrile disease accompanied by various nonspecific symptoms; however, additional severe syndromes may occur: neurological diseases (meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis); hemorrhagic symptoms; abortions and congenital disorders; or vesicular stomatitis. Certain arboviral diseases cause significant economic losses in domestic animals-for example, Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalitides, West Nile encephalitis, Nairobi sheep disease, Rift Valley fever, Akabane fever, Schmallenberg disease (emerged recently in Europe), African horse sickness, bluetongue, vesicular stomatitis, and African swine fever; all of these (except for Akabane and Schmallenberg diseases) are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, 2012).
Encephalitides (WEE, EEE, VEE, Japanese, WNV)
Overview of Equine Arboviral Encephalomyelitis ( Equine viral encephalitis ) By Maureen T. Long , DVM, PhD, DACVIM, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida  Equine encephalitides can be clinically similar, usually cause diffuse encephalomyelitis and are characterized by signs of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and moderate to high mortality. Arboviruses are the most common cause of equine encephalitis, but rabies virus, Sarcocystis neurona (EPM), Neospora hughesii see Neosporosis ), equine herpesviruses, and several bacteria and nematodes may also cause encephalitis. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes or other hematophagous insects, infect a variety of vertebrate hosts (including people), and may cause serious disease. Most pathogenic arboviruses use a mosquito to bird or rodent cycle. Tickborne encephalitides are also a differential cause in the eastern hemisphere. Arboviral diseases are ever emerging, and there are arboviruses pathogenic to horses on virtually every continent.

West Nile Virus (WNV)
Concern in the U.S. about Eight Zoonotic Diseases Shared Between
Animals & People
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its U.S. government partners have released the first federal collaborative report listing the top zoonotic diseases of national concern for the United States. Zoonotic diseases are illnesses that can spread between animals and people. The CDC, U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and USDA developed the report after jointly hosting a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop for the U.S. During the workshop, agencies agreed on a list of eight zoonotic diseases that are of greatest concern to the nation and made recommendations for next steps using a One Health approach.
"Every year, tens of thousands of Americans get sick from diseases spread between animals and people. CDC's One Health Office is collaborating with DOI, USDA, and other partners across the government to bring together disease detectives, laboratorians, physicians, and veterinarians to prevent those illnesses and protect the health of people, animals, and our environment," said Casey Behravesh, One Health Office.
The zoonotic diseases of most concern in the U.S. are: Zoonotic influenza, Salmonellosis, West Nile virus, Plague, Emerging coronaviruses (e.g., SARS and MERS), Rabies, Brucellosis, and Lyme disease. Six out of every 10 infectious diseases in people are zoonotic , which makes it crucial that the nation strengthen its capabilities to prevent and respond to these diseases using a One Health approach. One Health is an approach that recognizes the connection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment and calls for experts in human, animal, and environmental health to work together to achieve the best health outcomes for all. This workshop was the first time multiple government agencies in the U.S. worked together on this topic and is a critical step towards a coordinated U.S.-specific approach to One Health. The workshop report outlines the process, the resulting list of prioritized zoonotic diseases, and discussions and recommendations by the participants (5/6/2019). Full text:
Brucellosis – in Canines – a Zoonosis
The [Iowa] state veterinarian says an outbreak of canine brucellosis in central Iowa has been traced to a small commercial dog breeding facility in Marion County. Dr. Jeff Kaisand says the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship are in the process of notifying individuals who have custody of the exposed dogs; the animals and the facilities are quarantined until the dogs can undergo testing. Any pet owners who have recently acquired a new, small breed dog from Marion County [Iowa] should contact their veterinarian; human health concerns should be directed to the Iowa Department of Public Health, or to your physician.

Brucellosis can be transmitted to both animals and humans; the threat to most pet owners is considered low, but dog breeders, veterinary staff, and anyone who comes into contact with blood, tissues, and fluids during the birthing process may be at higher risk. Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease caused by several species in the genus Brucella; Brucella canis is an important cause of reproductive failure in dogs, especially in kennels. Infections can result in abortions and stillbirths in females, and epididymitis, prostatitis, orchitis, and sperm abnormalities in males. Although spayed or neutered dogs do not have reproductive signs, they occasionally develop other conditions such as ocular disease and disco-spondylitis. B. canis may persist in an animal even after antibiotic treatment. In kennels, infected dogs are often euthanized to prevent them from infecting other dogs or people. Canine brucellosis is sometimes difficult to diagnose [in dogs] with the currently available tests.     

The importance of B. canis as a cause of human illness is still unclear. Few clinical cases have been reported in people, and most have been mild. However, human infections with this organism may be underdiagnosed, as the symptoms are nonspecific, diagnostic suspicion among physicians is low, and obtaining a definitive diagnosis may be difficult. Immunosuppressed people may be at a more significant risk. Veterinarians, veterinary technicians, or nurses, and kennel help may also be more susceptible due to their more frequent exposure to canine urine.

International Society for Infectious Diseases . Saturday 11 May 2019.
Brucellosis, canine - USA: (MI)
Brucellosis, human, canine - USA: (NY) B. canis
Arkansas-USDA-APHIS-Veterinary Services BSE Surveillance
Because cattle slaughter numbers within Arkansas are so low, our Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) surveillance numbers have historically been dependent on samples acquired from on-farm cattle that died with CNS signs and CNS cases submitted to the ALPC-AVDL (Diagnostic Lab). 

“On-farm dead” samples: APHIS is currently paying $100.00 per accepted (testable) sample to the accredited veterinarian, and a maximum of $100.00 in disposal fees to the producer. APHIS supplies sample shipment boxes for the accredited veterinarian; please order using the NVSL Kit Request Form and the boxes can be shipped directly to the veterinarian. Kits have pre-labeled FedEx forms with the current FedEx account code used for AR written on the form. Currently, all BSE samples from AR should be sent to the Athens, GA lab: Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Lab - College of Veterinary Medicine, UGA 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602-5023. Telephone: 706-542-4979 (PLEASE PUT ON LABEL). Contact the Athens Lab to be put on their email list for results. Copies of the USDA BSE Cattle Data Collection Form and copies of the USDA BSE Submission Form can be e-mailed. Copies of VS Form 8-18 (Statement of Services Performed) for the accredited veterinarian and copies of the Producer Invoice (veterinarian provides to the producer for collection of disposal fee) can be e-mailed. The APHIS-VS District Epidemiologist must certify that the sample was appropriate with valid test results before the veterinarian is paid; payment may take a few weeks.
Bovine Leukosis (Malignant lymphoma)
Lymphosarcoma in cattle may be sporadic or result from infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV); the latter is often referred to as an enzootic bovine leukosis. Sporadic lymphosarcoma in cattle is unrelated to infection with BLV. Despite the lack of association, animals with sporadic lymphosarcoma may possibly be infected with the virus. Sporadic lymphosarcoma manifests in three main forms: juvenile, thymic, and cutaneous. Juvenile lymphosarcoma occurs most often in animals less than 6 months old, thymic lymphosarcoma affects cattle 6–24 months old, and cutaneous lymphosarcoma is most common in cattle 1–3 years old. Enzootic bovine leukosis is caused by BLV, an exogenous C-type oncogenic retrovirus of the BLV-human T-lymphotropic virus group. The virus escapes the immune response by low levels of viral replication. It appears that replication is blocked at the transcriptional level, but the mechanism is not completely understood. The prevalence of BLV infection varies from country to country. Many European countries, Australia, and New Zealand have eradication programs in place that have led to negligible rates of BLV infection. Although voluntary control programs are in place in the U.S., prevalence is high compared with much of the rest of the world. The most recent surveys in the U.S. estimate that 44 percent of dairy and 10 percent of beef cattle are infected with the virus. Prevalence tends to increase on dairies with increasing herd size, while the converse is true in beef cattle. In general, the prevalence of viral infection increases with age.

Cattle are infected with BLV through the transfer of blood and blood products that contain infected lymphocytes. Under experimental conditions, most routes of viral exposure can successfully transmit infection. However, many of these settings are unlikely to be encountered naturally. Many bodily fluids, including urine, feces, saliva, respiratory secretions, semen, uterine fluids, and embryos, have been examined for their ability to transmit BLV and are considered to be noninfectious. Only on rare occasion has the virus been found in these fluids. Colostrum from BLV-positive cows contains the virus and has been found to be infectious experimentally. However, colostrum also contains large amounts of antibody, and it is believed that the protective effects of colostral antibody outweigh the infectious potential when colostrum is administered in a normal fashion. Most BLV transmission is horizontal. Close contact between BLV-negative and BLV-positive cattle is thought to be a risk factor. Many common farm practices have been implicated in viral transmission, including tattooing, dehorning, rectal palpation, injections, and blood collection . Vectors such as tabanids and other large biting flies also may transmit the virus. Vertical transmission may occur transplacentally from an infected dam to the fetus, intrapartum by contact with infected blood, or postpartum from the dam to the calf through ingestion of infected colostrum. Any material that is blood contaminated or lymphocyte rich has the potential to infect animals with BLV.

There are three main outcomes in cattle infected with BLV. Most animals remain persistently infected with no outward signs of infection. Approximately 29 percent of BLV-infected cattle develop persistent lymphocytosis, while less than five percent of BLV-infected cattle develop lymphosarcoma. Persistent lymphocytosis is sometimes referred to as a preneoplastic syndrome, but there is no convincing evidence that affected cattle have an increased risk of developing lymphosarcoma. Persistent lymphocytosis is considered a benign condition associated with BLV infection. For this reason, it is often overlooked. However, these cows may serve as a reservoir of infection. The increased lymphocyte count is attributed to a 45-fold increase of infected CD5 + and a 99-fold increase in infected CD5 B cells. It has been suggested that cows with persistent lymphocytosis may be at greater risk of passing BLV infection on to their calves in utero and may show decreased milk production and alteration of milk components. Lymphosarcoma is rarely seen in animals less than two years old and is most common in the 4-8 year-old age group. Less than five percent of BLV-infected cattle develop lymphosarcoma. Lymphosarcoma, including both sporadic and enzootic forms, is one of the main causes of condemnation of adult dairy cows at slaughter. Dusty W. Nagy, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM, CVM - University of Missouri.
Continuing Education Opportunities
Food Animal Medicine Workshops – UA Cooperative Extension / ArVMA – varied sites                                          
Every Month in 2019
Various locations, including: Puerto Rico, Texas, Georgia, Florida
AVMA Annual Convention in Washington, D.C.
August 23-26, 2019 - FETCH (CVC Central) in Kansas City, MO
NVAP modules will be presented on Monday, August 26
January 23-25, 2020 - Oklahoma Veterinary Conference in Norman, OK
January 23-26, 2020 - Missouri VMA 128th Annual Convention in Columbia, MO
February 7-9, 2020 - Arkansas VMA 113th Annual Winter Meeting