Spring
Second Quarter 2019 (Volume 2)  

Quarterly Update- Arkansas State Veterinarian's Office
Randolph Chick, DVM (501) 823-1733
Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI)
Arkansas accepts paper and most electronic CVI forms. Please consider adopting use of electronic CVI if you do not currently. If using paper copies, PLEASE be sure to send the yellow and blue copies of the completed CVIs to the Office of the State Veterinarian on a weekly basis.

Legal Case involving CVIs :   KY Veterinarian Pleads Guilty to Helping Illegally Move 60,000 Cattle
A veterinarian in Kentucky has pleaded guilty to federal charges for aiding a company in illegally moving cattle across state lines with fraudulent paperwork. On January 17, John M. Moran, 65, from Flemingsburg, Ky., entered a guilty plea of conspiring with Eugene Barber, co-owner of Eugene Barber and Sons, Inc. to violate the Animal Health Protection Act, a regulation that is intend to protect the health and welfare of the public by preventing, detecting, and eradicating the spread of diseases in animals that are shipped within the United States. Under federal law, cattle are required to be inspected by a veterinarian prior to shipment across state lines. Health certificates are then issued by the veterinarian attesting to the inspection with appropriate state authorities.

The indictment from the Department of Justice released on September 6 alleged that Moran falsely certified inspecting cattle for Barber & Sons. Moran had in fact pre-signed the interstate certificate of veterinary inspection without inspecting the cattle. Moran faces up to five years of prison for a charge of conspiracy to defraud the United States and is scheduled to be sentenced on April 22, 2019. Barber plead guilty in November and was sentenced in February. For more information about this case, see the article by Wyatt Bechtel at www.drovers.com/article/veterinarian-pleads-guilty-helping-illegally-move-60000-cat .
                                                                                                                                                
Arkansas Regulatory Requirements for Animal Entry (Imports into Arkansas)

Arkansas Entry Permits for animals originating from out of Arkansas can be obtain by calling:
(501) 225-1598, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m-4:30 p.m.   
The Arkansas Livestock and Poultry Commission is working on development of an online system for obtaining animal entry permits at all hours, seven days a week.

Arkansas Reporting Requirements for Reportable Diseases of Domestic Animals (Arkansas and USDA)
If samples are sent to an out-of-state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, please be sure to report any positive results for Reportable Diseases to the office of the Arkansas State Veterinarian.

Arkansas State Veterinarian Office, AAD-ALPC    (501) 823-1733
USDA APHIS-VS, AVIC   (501) 725-7784
DO NOT depend on the diagnostic laboratory to report test results to the Arkansas State Veterinarian!
Tickborne Disease Surveillance
I n 2017, state and local health departments reported a record number of cases of tickborne disease to the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Over 59,349 cases - up from 48,610 in 2016.
                         Reported tickborne diseases, U.S.                2016 / 2017
                         Lyme disease (confirmed/probable)        36,429 & 42,743
                         Anaplasmosis/Ehrlichiosis**                        5750 / 7718
                         Spotted fever rickettsiosis***                      4269 / 6248
                         Babesiosis****                                               1910 / 2368
                         Tularemia                                                         230 / 239
                         Powassan virus                                                 22 / 33
                         Total                                                           48,610 / 59,349
                    All cases were reported from continental U.S., Hawaii, and Alaska
**Anaplasmosis & ehrlichiosis are combined for the period.
***Includes R. rickettsia, parkeri species. 364D
**** Total Reported Cases of Tickborne Disease, 2004-2017 rose from 22 257 cases in 2004 to 59 349 cases in 2017. [November 2018. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NCEZID)(DVBD)]. www.cdc.gov/ticks/diseases/index.html
Anaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis traditionally refers to a disease of ruminants caused by obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Anaplasma. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and some wild ruminants can be infected.

Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (~40°N to 32°S), including South and Central America, the U.S., southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Clinical bovine anaplasmosis is usually caused by A marginale. Cattle are also infected with A centrale, which generally results in mild disease. A ovis may cause mild to severe disease in sheep, deer, and goats. A phagocytophilum has recently been reported to infect cattle; however, natural infection is rare and it does not cause clinical disease. Up to 17 different tick vector species have been reported to transmit Anaplasma spp.

Dermacentor spp have been incriminated as the main vectors in the U.S.. A replicative cycle occurs in the infected tick. Mechanical transmission via biting dipterans occurs in some regions. Transplacental transmission has been reported and is usually associated with acute infection of the dam in the second or third trimester of gestation. Anaplasmosis may also be spread through the use of contaminated needles or dehorning or other surgical instruments.

Calves are much more resistant to disease (although not infection) than older cattle. In endemic areas where cattle first become infected with A marginale early in life, losses due to anaplasmosis are minimal. After recovery from the acute phase of infection, cattle remain chronically infected carriers but are generally immune to further clinical disease. However, chronically infected cattle may relapse to anaplasmosis when immunosuppressed, when infected with other pathogens, or after splenectomy. Carriers serve as a reservoir for further transmission. Serious losses occur when mature cattle with no previous exposure are moved into endemic areas. In animals less than 1 year old anaplasmosis is usually subclinical, in yearlings and 2-year-olds it is moderately severe, and in older cattle it is severe and often fatal.

Anaplasmosis is characterized by progressive anemia due to extravascular destruction of infected and uninfected erythrocytes. The prepatent period of A marginale is directly related to the infective dose and typically ranges from 15–36 days (although it may be as long as 100 days). Bos indicus breeds of cattle appear to possess a greater resistance to A marginale infection than B taurus breeds, but variation of resistance of individuals within breeds of both species occurs. The carcasses of cattle that die from anaplasmosis are generally markedly anemic and jaundiced. Blood is thin and watery. The spleen is characteristically enlarged and soft, with prominent follicles. Hepatic and mediastinal lymph nodes appear brown. Alicja E. Lew-Tabor, BSc (Hons), PhD, The University of Queensland www.merckvetmanual.com/circulatory-system/blood-parasites/anaplasmosis
Bobcat Fever (Felines)
Kansas State University veterinarians are warning pet owners to watch out for ticks carrying a disease that could kill cats. Cytauxzoon felis, also known as bobcat fever, is a blood parasite that infects domestic cats and has a very high death rate. Bobcat fever does not affect humans or dogs. It is called bobcat fever because bobcats are considered the main reservoir for the disease, as it is typically not fatal for them.
 
Most cases of bobcat fever occur from March through September, which coincides with the times cats are most likely to encounter ticks. Late spring and early summer are the peak times for ticks. If your cat has contracted the disease, it can be anywhere from five to 20 days before symptoms appear.

"First, you're probably going to notice they're going to be really lethargic and tired," Susan Nelson, DVM said. "Their appetite is going to decrease. They may feel very hot to you as they will tend to run a high fever early in the course of the disease. As the disease progresses, you might see breathing problems, dehydration and the whites of their eyes or the inside of their ears might start looking yellow as they start getting jaundiced. Their body temperature will start to drop as they near the end stages of the disease."

A cat may be infected even if you don't see a tick on the animal, because the tick may have already fed and dropped off the cat before the animal starts showing symptoms of the disease.

No vaccine is available for this disease. Treatment can be expensive and often unsuccessful, so it is important to take precautionary steps to keep your cat from being bitten. Nelson says the best thing to do is to keep your cat indoors. Do daily tick checks on the cats and remember to look between their toes. If your cat lives with a dog, make sure you are using some type of tick control on the dog as it can bring ticks into your house, which can then feed on your cat.
Dogs and Zoonosis
Human exposure information: www.cdc.gov/ticks/diseases/index.html
Equine Piroplasmosis
Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) is a blood-borne protozoal infection of horses caused by Theileria (Babesia) equi and/or Babesia caballi. Equine Piroplasmosis is present in South and Central America, the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern and Southern Europe. Only the U.S., Canada, Australia, Japan, and Iceland are not considered to be endemic areas. Mortality rates for infected horses can reach 50 percent. 
 
EP has not been shown to be zoonotic, but is considered a foreign animal disease in the U.S. and any detection must be reported to the State Veterinarian and/or the APHIS Veterinary Services Assistant Director. Tick species in the genera Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, and Rhipicephalus that may be potential natural vectors for spreading T. equi and B. caballi. Ticks must feed on an EP positive horse in order to spread the organism and some tick species can serve as a reservoir transmitting the infection to future generations of ticks through its eggs. The disease can also be spread by iatrogenic means through blood and blood-contaminated equipment. The majority of cases found within the United States have been linked to the use of contaminated medical equipment (needles, syringes, IV sets, tattooing equipment, other medical tools) and/or blood. Infection may be passed from mares to foals in utero. Clinical signs are often non-specific and can include: fever, lack of appetite, anemia (loss/destruction of red blood cells), jaundice, exercise intolerance, weight loss, swollen abdomen, labored breathing, colic and sudden death.
 
Horses found positive for Equine Piroplasmosis in the U.S. must be placed under quarantine and can either enroll in the USDA-APHIS-approved EP treatment program, remain under life-long quarantine, or be euthanized. The USDA-APHIS-approved EP treatment protocol uses high doses of imidocarb dipriopionate to permanently clear the organism from the horse. Treated horses are released from quarantine once all diagnostic tests return to a negative antibody status. Quarantines may last for one or more years as antibody titers take time to reach negative levels. To prevent iatrogenic spread, never reuse needles, syringes or IV sets, use only new, clean needles with injectable medicines and use only licensed and approved blood products. Blood transfusions should be performed only by licensed veterinarians using donor horses tested negative for equine piroplasmosis and other blood-borne infections like Equine Infectious  Anemia . Reduce tick exposure by keeping pastures mowed, removing brush and weeds and using topical insecticides such as pyrethroid or permethrin products. There are no vaccines available for EP prevention.
 
EP is a reportable disease; please contact your State Veterinarian or local APHIS-VS office. www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/horse-disease-information/ep/equine-piroplasmosis
General Practice Tip
Reportedly starting in 2019, you cannot deduct expenses such as travel and meal expenses, professional association dues, business liability insurance premiums, depreciation for computer or phone, employee education expenses, employee supplies and uniforms and tax preparation fees. Consult your tax professional for details and further information.
Feature Article - Trichomoniasis (“Trich”) – Bovine and others
NOTE: Bovine trichomoniasis is considered a Reportable Disease by the Arkansas Livestock and Poultry Commission (ALPC). Regulations regarding bull testing and change of ownership are posted on the Arkansas Agriculture Department/ALPC website www.aad.arkansas.gov/Websites/aad/files/Content/5937242/Trichomoniasis_.pdf
 
What is “trich”? Bovine venereal trichomoniasis is caused by Tritrichomonas foetus, a flagellate protozoan that lives in the reproductive tracts of bulls and cows and is found worldwide. The advancing use of artificial insemination in many areas of the world has helped to reduce the prevalence. “Trich” transmission occurs from an infected bull to an uninfected cow (or heifer), or vice versa. Males are the major reservoir of trichomoniasis in ruminants; bulls over 4 years of age tend to be long-term carriers and for this reason, bulls are the preferred subjects for the diagnosis and control of the disease. Chronically infected bulls do not demonstrate clinical disease and will appear to be healthy and breed normally.
 
In new infections of cows or heifers, an inflammation of the reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, uterus) may manifest as a discharge from the vagina or pyometra (uterus distended with pus, cow not cycling). If the cow is pregnant, infection commonly results in placentitis (inflamed birth membranes) and early abortion (1-16 weeks of gestation).
 
A tentative diagnosis of trichomoniasis is based upon a herd’s history (noted as clinical signs in individual cows for a naturally serviced herd). Signs of early abortion, return to estrus, high percentage of “open” cows, and irregular estrus cycles should be noticeable. Confirmation requires demonstration of T. foetus by laboratory testing. In cows and heifers, T. foetus parasites are most reliably identified from placental fluids, placenta, aborted fetuses, uterine (pyometra) discharges or vaginal mucus. Often, infected fluids and tissues will be associated with an abortion process.
 
Detection of infected carrier bulls requires testing; it is strongly suggested that a bull be isolated from cows for at least 7 days pre-testing (sexual rest allows “trich” organisms to increase in number and meets the criteria for an “official test”). The required sample for detection of trichomoniasis in bulls is a preputial scraping taken by an accredited veterinarian proficient in the procedure. Consider investing ten minutes of your time prior to testing bulls and view a video by Kansas’ animal health officials: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4WNQh6cJRw .
 
The Arkansas Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (AVDL, Little Rock) is the official testing laboratory for bovine trichomoniasis in the state of Arkansas. Trichomonas testing is listed on the AVDL website – www.aad.arkansas.gov/Websites/aad/files/Content/5937336/Lab_Fee_Sked-18467.pdf . Please fill out the submission forms completely and legibly. Arkansas currently recognizes most other states' official protocols and “approved laboratory” results. PLEASE REPORT ALL OUT-OF-STATE LABORATORY RESULTS (Positive and Negative for Trichomoniasis) to the Arkansas State Veterinarian’s office in order to better determine the overall incidence of “Trich” within the state).
  
Testing of ALL purchased bulls before their exposure to the herd will help to prevent introduction of trichomoniasis into a herd. Infected bulls are long-term carriers and can serve to carryover infection in cattle herds from one breeding season to the next. Official tests are either the culture of the protozoa (a lengthy process) or the preferred laboratory method of individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Samples for testing should be submitted to the approved laboratory in Trichomonas transport medium. Trichomonas test media (pouches) are preferred for sampling and are manufactured by Biomed Diagnostics, Inc. (available directly from the company, 800-964-6466) “TF transit” tubes are also available from MWI Veterinary Supply (800-824-3703), Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000), and other vendors. BE SURE TO CHECK EXPIRATION DATES ON SUBMITTED MEDIA; use of outdated media affects the value of lab results as official tests.
 
I ndividual PCR or Pooled PCR? The pooling of up to 5 bulls is allowed if : grouped bulls are from common pasturage and have covered the same herd of cows, samples are for a herd surveillance test (not for regulatory requirements), and no pending change of ownership or sale of bull is planned. SOME STATES WILL NOT ACCEPT POOLED SAMPLES FOR IMPORTATION TESTING INTO THEIR STATE - CHECK THE STATE OF DESTINATION REQUIREMENTS BEFORE REQUESTING POOLED SAMPLES. Submit all of the preputial scraping samples individually to the lab in TF pouches or media; samples will be pooled in the laboratory . Any “Positive” pooled PCR samples will require follow-up testing of the individual samples to identify the positive individual(s).
 
Control of “trich” requires the identification of bulls infected with T. foetus and their removal from the herd. There is no known method for clearing T. foetus infections from bulls; culling of all potentially infected animals from the herd and sale for slaughter only is strongly recommended. Cows with trichomoniasis reportedly clear infections spontaneously in 90-120 days. Cows are not considered a source of T. foetus infection from one breeding season to the next (Author’s Note: please consider that persistently infected cows exposed to bulls may contribute to the ongoing threat, especially in herds with extended calving seasons).
Veterinary Applications for Cellphones
ViralVet – Case discussions on line. Free on Android and Apple
A Vet Tool – Lots of references and calculators. Small fee for Android and Apple
VetVance Mobile – Business and personal development, sponsored by Zoetis. Android and Apple
Merck Veterinary Manual – Everything the book offers and more. Android and Apple
Vet Calculator – Just what it says. Android only
Vet App – Client relationship and contact builder. Android and Apple
Continuing Education Opportunities In Arkansas
Food Animal Medicine Workshops – UACES / ArVMA www.uaex.edu/farm-ranch/animals-forages/food-animal-medicine-workshop.aspx

Back to Basics: Cattle Medicine (April 25, 2019) - This one-day course will cover nutrition, parasite control, vaccine schedules, reproduction and common diseases and treatments. Hands-on training in the afternoon will include breeding soundness examination, venipuncture and pregnancy diagnosis.

U of A Livestock and Forestry Research Station, 70 Experiment Station Drive, Batesville, AR. Provides 6 hours of Arkansas approved CE. Contact Dr. Heidi Ward, hward@uaex.edu  by April 20 to register.  

Honey Bee Veterinary Medicine (May 17, 2019) - This one-day course will cover honey bee anatomy and behavior, honey bee diseases along with available treatments and parasite control. Bemis Honey Bee Farm, 13206 Asher Rd, Little Rock, AR. Provides 7 hours of Arkansas approved CE. Contact Dr. Heidi Ward at hward@uaex.edu  or at 501-671-2162 by May 15 to register.