which means "new town," was the first and only Russian Republic until modern times.
Founded as a trading port near the
in 859 AD, it is considered the first city of the
people, and was their capital until 882 AD when
moved the capital to
During the Middle Ages,
grew so prosperous that was it was
Russia's second main city after Kiev.
controlled an enormous area as large as Sweden.
economy was based on
Baltic sea trade,
being a member of the Hansa Union of rich Baltic ports.
It was situated on one of the main travel routes from Northern Europe to Rome and Constantinople.
During this era in history,
was divided into numerous princedoms which fought against each other.
Vladimir the Great of Kiev.
In 986 AD,
decided to throw his pagan gods in the Dnieper River and embrace a monotheistic faith.
He was soon visited by some Bulgar Muslims from Khwarezm, who invited him to adopt Islam.
The Primary Chronicle
, the official record of Russia from 850 AD to 1110 AD, compiled in Kiev in 1113, gives the account:
"They replied that they believed in Allah, and that Mohammed instructed them to practice circumcision, to eat no pork, to drink no wine, and after death, promised them complete fulfillment of their carnal desires.
'Mohammed,' they asserted, 'will give each man 70 fair women. He may choose one fair one, and upon that woman will Mohammed confer the charms of them all, and she shall be his wife.
'Mohammed promises that one may then satisfy every desire. But whoever is poor in this world will be no different in the next.' They also spoke other false things (which out of modesty may not be written down) ..."
The Primary Chronicle
"Vladimir listened to them, for he was fond of women and indulgence, regarding which he heard with pleasure. But circumcision and abstinence from pork and wine were disagreeable to him. 'Drinking,' said he, 'is the joy of the Russes. We cannot exist without that pleasure.'"
was visited by Germans from the Latin Roman Catholic Church, and then visited by Jewish Khazars.
was visited by Greeks from the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose beautiful
Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople
was the largest and most ornate church in the world for over a thousand years.
sent envoys to visit it, and upon their return, they stated: "We knew not whether we were in Heaven or on Earth ... We only know that God dwells there among the people, and their service is fairer than the ceremonies of other nations."
After hearing an explanation of the Gospel, and learning that the New Testament had been written in their language of Greek, and that many cities mentioned in the New Testament were located in the Byzantine Empire,
was baptized into Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
also adopted the
Eastern Orthodox Saint Nicholas
Patron Saint of Russia.
There was, perhaps, not a single city in Russia without a church named after
proceeded to have all Kievan Russians baptized into the Orthodox Christian Church.
sent his younger son,
Yaroslav the Wise,
to rule the area of
Relations began to strain between
and his son,
died in 1015, his older son,
Svyatopolk the Accursed,
had three other brothers killed and seized power in Kiev.
The citizens of Novgorod
finally won in 1019, and proceeded to reward the loyal citizens of
who supported him with privileges and freedoms.
This effectively laid the foundation for the
independent Novgorod Republic.
grew in wealth, constructed elaborate stone walls and erected the beautiful
Church of Saint Sofia,
the main cathedral of the Russian North.
By 1136, merchants had accumulated more power than the nobles, resulting in a government by the people.
The neighboring city of
was founded in 903 and adhered politically to the
were the only major cities in Russia to escape destruction when the
invaded in 1222, led by
the grandson of
to protect it from the Swedish army.
defeated the Swedes near the Neva River, resulting in his title --
The main avenue in St. Petersburg is named for him:
again from the nearby State of Teutonic Knights.
in a legendary campaign which included the
Battle of the Ice
on the frozen Lake Peipus, memorialized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie,
became the most powerful foe,
met in 1252 with the ruler of the Mongol "Golden Horde,"
son of Batu Khan.
converted to Christianity.
Other Khan leaders became favorable to Christianity, including
another grandson of Genghis Khan,
whose mother was a famous Christian princess -- Sorghaghtani Beki.
destroyed the Islamic capital of Baghdad (1258) and weakened Muslim control of Damascus (1260).
sent a letter in 1262 to
French King Louis IX -- St. Louis
-- proposing they fight together to recapture Jerusalem and drive the Muslims out of Egypt:
"From the head of the Mongol army, anxious to devastate the perfidious nation of the Saracens (Muslims), with the good-will support of the Christian faith ... so that you, who are the rulers of the coasts on the other side of the sea, endeavor to deny a refuge for the Infidels, your enemies and ours, by having your subjects diligently patrol the seas."
Another grandson of Genghis Khan was
Emperor of China, Korea, North India, Persia, Russia and Hungary.
He had requested
bring back 100 teachers of the Holy Christian Faith and a flask of oil from Christ's empty tomb in Jerusalem.
Columbus referred to this in a letter to the King and Queen of Spain in 1492:
"Concerning the lands of India, and a Prince called
How many times he sent to Rome
to seek doctors in our Holy Faith
to instruct him and that never had the Holy Father provided them, and thus so many people were lost through lapsing into idolatries...
And Your Highnesses ... devoted to the Holy Christian Faith ... enemies of the sect of Mahomet ... resolved to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the said regions of India,
to see the said princes
and peoples ... and the manner in which may be undertaken
their conversion to our Holy Faith."
In Russia, Sartaq Khan
vassalage to become
Grand Duke of Vladimir.
died mysteriously in what was suspected to have been poisoning by his uncle
Berke Khan, who had converted to Islam.
Berke Khan was determined to be a devout Muslim.
Taking control of the Golden Horde, his armies spread Islam throughout the Mongolian Empire.
declared war on
for destroying the Islamic capital of Baghdad.
Muslim "Tartar" armies proceeded to capture most of the land of
Rus, with the exception of Novgorod,
as it was surrounded by swamps.
continued to flourish, being ruled by its citizens.
Elections were held in the city square. People gathered and shouted for their candidates. The candidate with the loudest supporters became ruler.
Princes were still present in
but only to be hired military leaders to protect the city.
fate began to change when
Ivan III of Moscow, known as Ivan the Great,
expanded his domain.
Ivan the Great
took away four-fifths of the land from the
Republic of Novgorod
and deported its richest and ancient families.
A century later, in 1570,
Ivan the IV,
Ivan the Terrible,
became paranoid of conspiracies and killed anyone he suspected of being disloyal, even his own son.
was rumored to be seeking an alliance with Poland-Lithuania,
attacked with a vengeance.
first command was to subjugate the church.
He stripped cathedrals and monasteries of their valuables; put priests and deacons in shackles and flogged them til they paid a ransom; and he ordered some 500 clergymen beaten to death.
laid waste to 90 percent of the farmland surrounding Novgorod.
pillaged, burned, arrested and terrorized with cruel violence.
Men, women and children were:
-roasted over fires;
-tied to sleds and dragged through town;
-trapped under ice in the Volkhov River and if they managed to surface they were shoved back under.
The First Pskov Chronicle
an estimated 60,000 people were senselessly slaughtered by Ivan the Terrible.
Rise of the Tyrant - Volume 2 of Change to Chains
continued to decline economically until it finally lost its position of being the only Russian port near the Baltic when
Ivan the Terrible's
to force people into submission. It was a tactic replicated during the French Revolution's
Reign of Terror
, who headed the "
Committee of Public Safety
," France's version of a Department of Homeland Security, gave a speech to the National Assembly, February 5, 1794, titled "The Terror Justified":
"Lead ... the enemies of the people by terror ... Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice."
likewise attacked Christianity and turned churches into Temples of Reason.
The secular French French government beheaded 40,000 in Paris then slaughtered 300,000 in the Vendée from 1793-1796.
Notable Russian Tsars
Peter the Great (
Catherine the Great
(1801-1805), who defended Russia against Napoleon's invasion.
in June of 1812 with some 600,000 men.
After six months of blizzards, lack of food, and bloody battles, such as that of Borodino and Berezina River,
retreated back to France with only 40,000.
DVD Change to Chains-the 6000 year Quest for Global Control
Over 3 million Russians were killed in
World War I
with Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany, resulting in
Tsar Nicholas II's
abdication and assassination.
led the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, stating:
"The goal of socialism is communism.
Promises of abundance proved false as a Lenin's godless government again employed terror tactics to maintain power.
seized power in 1922. To control citizens, he notoriously used "fear and food":
people were kept in constant fear
that government agencies would falsely accuse them and cart them away in the night; and
-people were kept in a continual food shortage,
so they could not have the resources to rebel.
engineered a famine that killed millions in his war against the kulaks (self-sufficient farmers).
Richard Pipes discussed in his book
(Random House, 2001), the terror tactics used by Stalin:
"To break the resistance of the peasants in the Ukraine, the North Caucasus, and the Kazakhstan,
inflicted on these areas in 1932-33 an artificial famine, shipping out all the food from entire districts and deploying the army to prevent the starving peasants from migrating in search of nourishment.
It is estimated that between 6 and 7 million people perished in this man-made catastrophe."
Franklin Roosevelt stated February 10, 1940:
"The Soviet Union
... is run by
as absolute as any other dictatorship in the world."
The Union of Soviet
Republics saw millions killed in purges.
permitted the authorities to demand
-- and obtain --
and all the necessary sacrifices from its citizens."
Richard Pipes wrote in his book,
regime needed another crisis ...
, the leader of Communist Cuba, would explain ...
'The revolution needs the enemy ... The revolution needs for its development its antithesis'
... And if enemies were lacking, they had to be fabricated ..."
"In 1934, a prominent Bolshevik,
, the party boss of Lenningrad, was assassinated under mysterious conditions ... evidence points to
was gaining too much popularity in party ranks for Stalin's comfort ...
... His assassination brought
two advantages: it rid him of a potential rival and provided a rationale for instigating a vast campaign against alleged anti-Soviet conspirators ...
Purges of the 1930's were a terror campaign that in indiscriminate ferocity and number of victims had no parallel in world history ... Authorities ... beat them until they confess to their crimes they have not committed."
In 1941, Russia
was invaded by Germany's
National Socialist Workers Party
it became the
bloodiest theater in World War II
, being considered the largest military confrontation ever and
deadliest conflict in human history,
with an estimate
30 million deaths.
Battle of Sevastopol, Russia,
1941-42, over 200,000 were killed, wounded or captured.
Franklin Roosevelt stated March 1, 1945:
"I saw Sevastopol and Yalta! And I know that there is not room enough on earth for both German militarism and Christian decency."
The terror tactic was used by the National
Workers Party (Nazi) to bring people into submission during World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt explained, December 15, 1941:
"Government to him is not the servant ... of the people but their absolute master and
of their every act."
Nazi General Hans Frank
plundered Poland, committing mass murder of millions of Poles and Jews in death camps.
After the war,
was arrested, tried and executed.
During his imprisonment, Fr. O'Conner led
to believe in the atonement of Christ for his many sins and he became a Roman Catholic.
At the Nuremberg Trials, August 31, 1945,
was remorseful, stating:
"At the beginning of our way
we did not suspect that our turning away from God could have such disastrous deadly consequences
and that we would necessarily become more and more deeply involved in guilt.
At that time we could not have known that so much loyalty and willingness to sacrifice on the part of the German people could have been so badly directed by us.
by turning away from God, we were overthrown
and had to perish ..."
God pronounced and executed judgment on Hitler and the system which we served with minds far from God
Therefore, may our people, too, be called back from the road on which Hitler -- and we with him -- have led them.
I beg of our people NOT to continue in this direction
, be it even a single step; because
Hitler's road was the way without God, the way of turning from Christ
, and, in the last analysis, the way of political foolishness, the way of disaster, and the way of death ...
... His path became more and more that of
a frightful adventurer without conscience
or honesty, as I know today at the end of this Trial.
We call upon the German people ... to return from this road which, according to
the law and justice of God
, had to lead us and our system into disaster and which will lead everyone into disaster who tries to walk on it ... everywhere in the whole world."
Get the book Change to Chains: The 6,000 Year Quest for Global Power
To the annoyance of liberal academia, the high ideals of socialist and communist classless societies never materialize.
-Socialist and Communist leaders rule as
Stalin, Mao Zedong, Pol Pot, Ho Chi Min, Kim Jong-il, Hitler, Castro, Ceausescu, Tito, etc.;
-"Party members" effectively are
"the new royalty,"
living in special neighborhoods with special shops, and getting special treatment before the law, as long as they enforce the dictator's will. If they are suspected of opposing him, they disappeared;
are equivalent to subjects, peasants and serfs, with their fate dictated by the dictator and his enforcers.
Naive students are taught
Critique of the Gotha Program,
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
In practice, though, this is not the case.
One need only ask: "Who gets to live in the nice house and who lives in the dumpy house?" The answer is: "Someone in the government dictates those things." Well, whoever ultimately dictates those things is the dictator!
Controlled media and rigged elections insure the dictator and his "royalty" enforcer-class stay in power.
Rise of the Tyrant - Volume 2 of Change to Chains
In February 1945,
Russian author Alexander Solzhenitsyn
was arrested in the Soviet Union for writing politically incorrect comments against
was imprisoned for eight years, as he described in his autobiographical lecture, printed in the Nobel Foundation's publication,
Les Prix Nobel
"I was arrested on the grounds of what the censorship had found in my correspondence with a school friend, mainly because of certain disrespectful remarks about Stalin, although we referred to him in disguised terms.
A further basis for the 'charge' were drafts of stories and reflections which had been found in my map case."
secretly wrote drafts, being careful to keep them in hiding till they could be smuggled out the Russia. and printed in France with the title
The Gulag Archipelago
It was translated into 35 languages and sold over 30 million copies.
was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but the Communist government did not allow him to leave the country to accept it.
In response to international pressure, the Soviet Union expelled him on FEBRUARY 13, 1974.
The following year in Washington, D.C.,
"I ... call upon
to be more careful ... because
they are trying to weaken you ... to disarm your strong and magnificent country
in the face of this
fearful threat -- one that has never been seen before in the history of the world."
became a socialist dictatorship:
"Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia:
'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened ...'
... Since then I have spent well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies ...
But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of
the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people
, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat:
'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'"
Another Russian author,
in his book,
The Brothers Karamazov
, had the character Ivan Karamazov contend that
if there is no God, "everything is permitted."
One of America's founders,
gave a similar warning:
"It is when a people forget God that tyrants forge their chains."
DVD Who is the King in America? -And Who are the Counselors to the King?
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