Editor's Note
This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of red ginseng (RG) and black ginseng (BG). The study concludes that BG provides increased anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenosides profile that occurs in processing. The ginsenoside compositions were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showing the profile of BG is altered with increased processing. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency compared to NSAIDs.
Abstract

Background
Different processing conditions alter the  ginseng  bioactive compounds, promoting or reducing its  anti-inflammatory effects . We compared black ginseng (BG) – that have been steamed 5 times – with red ginseng (RG).

Hypothesis/ Purpose
To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.

Methods
Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative  Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction  (qRT-PCR),  western blot , xylene-induced  ear edema carrageenan-induced paw edema

Results
The  ginsenoside  contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the  mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory  mediators , iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and  TNF-α Protein expression  was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as  dexamethasone  and  indomethacin  - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent  anti-inflammatory agent , possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the  NSAIDs .

Conclusion
BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.