Editor's Note
This study evaluated the expression and variability of the chemical markers of  G. madruno  according to the part of the plant used, the origin and the ripeness stage by applying chemometric tools. A total of 167 samples were evaluated, and 27 compounds were quantified per sample. The authors found that origin of the fruit significantly impacted the expression of metabolites, but the ripeness stage did not. Epicarp was the main source of biflavonoids and the results indicate that epicarp is a good source of functional compounds and, with appropriately agronomic development, could be improved even more.
Highlights
  • G. madruno is a significant source of phenolic compounds (biflavonoids and PIBs).
  • The epicarp was the richest source of biflavonoids and PIBs (more than 20%).
  • The regional origin impact significantly the expression of the main metabolites.
  • The ripeness stage does not influence the expression of quality markers.

Abstract
Garcinia madruno  is a neotropical tree characterized by its exotic fruit and its functional compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and variability of the chemical markers of  G. madruno  according to the part of the plant used, the origin and the ripeness stage by applying chemometric tools. A total of 167 samples were evaluated, and 27 compounds were quantified per sample. The expression of amentoflavone, morelloflavone-type biflavonoids and polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs) promoted intergroup differentiation, whereas the expression of GB-2a-type biflavonoids promoted intragroup cluster generation. Epicarp was the main source of biflavonoids and the secondary source of PIBs, with values up to 25% in some individuals. The origin of the fruit significantly impacted the expression of metabolites, whereas the ripeness stage did not. The results indicate that epicarp is a good source of functional compounds and, with appropriately agronomic development, could be improved even more.