Editor's Note
This study aimed to review the driving factors for the commercial adulteration of coffee. Methods have been assessed for the identification of the most common materials used to adulterate coffee by dilution, to establish the geographic origins, the genotypes of beans, and to assess the authenticity of  Kopi Luwak coffee. Literature from 1820 to 2018 was surveyed both manually and electronically and a flow diagram was developed to summarize the best approaches to deal with the authentication of coffee. The study reviews the current analytical difficulties in the authentication of coffee and suggests ways to improve.
Abstract

Background

The driving factors for the commercial adulteration of coffee are reviewed. 

Objective

Methods have been assessed for the identification of the most common materials used to adulterate coffee by dilution, to establish the geographic origins, the genotypes of beans, and to assess the authenticity of  Kopi Luwak  coffee. 

Method

The literature was surveyed manually and electronically from 1820 to 2018. 

Results

A flow diagram has been developed to summarize the best approaches to deal with the authentication of coffee. 

Conclusions

Encouragement is given to the interlaboratory validation of spectroscopic approaches, the exploration of civet cat deoxyribonucleic acid for the identification of  Kopi Luwak , and the development of appropriately large and well-curated datasets of authenticity information across multiple techniques. 

Highlights

The current analytical difficulties in the authentication of coffee are highlighted and suggestions made to improve the situation.

2020 Annual Fund Sponsors: