Mulberry Diels-Alder-type adducts (MDAAs) are a group of structurally unique natural products biosynthetically derived from the intermolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition of a dehydroprenylphenol and a chalcone. In the current study, ten MDAAs, including an undescribed one, inethermulberrofuran C, were isolated from the root bark of
. The anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD) properties of these isolates were systematically screened for a series of potential targets (Aβ self-aggregation, tau aggregation, and ChEs) as well as the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Four compounds, mulberrofuran C, mulberrofuran K, mulberrofuran G, and isomulberrofuran G, turned out to be potent multi-targeted agents for AD. Among them, mulberrofuran K with a good blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (8.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s) was selected as a promising candidate for further mechanism study in glutamate-induced HT22 cell model, which showed its neuroprotective ability on up-regulation of the glutathione (GSH) level and suppression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.