Chewable areca products are popular in southeast countries, including India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China. The major alkaloids present in areca products are guvacine, arecaidine, guvacoline, and arecoline which causes carcinogenecity and addiction.
The objective was quantitative analysis of alkaloid content of areca chewable products in different countries and regions using HPLC-UV, as well as benefit of their safety evaluation products.
A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 65 batches of areca chewable products from different countries and regions. Additionally, the similarity evaluation of chromatographic fingerprint was applied for data analysis.
These results revealed a significant variation in the content of areca alkaloids among tested products, with guvacoline (0.060-1.216mg/g), arecoline (0.376-3.592mg/g), guvacine (0.028-1.184mg/g), and arecaidine (0.184-1.291mg/g). There were significant differences in alkaloid content of areca chewable products from different producing areas.
The method will be useful in the safety evaluation of different areca chewable products.
The established HPLC-UV method can be adopted for safety evaluation of the areca chewable products from different countries and regions due to its general applicability.