CFN Masthead

Volume 77,  Number 8 *  SEPTEMBER 2014   

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NOTICE: We are sending you a revised copy of the September CF News because of dates that got transposed in the Calendar that went out with our first email. Please refer to this Revised issue. We apologize for any inconvenience this has caused you.

To welcome Fall, we have much to inspire you. The NER Meeting and Symposium in Vermont is coming up, followed by our Fall Awards Meeting, which is highlighted by a Judges Council Flower Show. Flower Show School, Gardening Study School and Environmental Studies School are all lined up to keep you busy learning. Pamela Weil will tell you the longest blooming plants, just in time for Fall planting. And we have Ports of Call, the travel themed 2015 Flower Show to prepare for.

And don't miss the articles on our President's theme, "Bee Kind to Pollinators, Plant Native Trees and Create Backyard Habitats." They are timely and relevant, as is the update on Fracking.

To plan your schedule, click here for the latest Calendar.


Lynn Hyson, Editor
President's Message 
Greetings Fellow Gardeners:


Regal and strong they firmly stand

as if just touched by Midas' hand; 

their plumes of gold together nod, 

pledging their wealth - the 

As summer wanes, their riches spill 
from coast to coast and spread until
      they're lost in sunset's golden flame 
      and then, at sunrise, shine the same. 
A hundred species, and more, unfold, 
      in hues from cream to deepest gold 
     to line the roadsides, shores, and 
     and crowd the meadows, plains and 
Charmed by the lure of gold-rush fame, 
     the bees rush in and stake their  
     while butterflies, their share  
     as fellow beings search there, too. 
Equally happy in sand or sod,  
     Sharing their wealth are - the  
--Mary Oatway 
The shorter, crisp days of September bring with them a different aura to our gardens, and a new set of plants become the "stars" of our backyards.
The lowly, much maligned goldenrod (Solidago) is one such star as far as wildlife is concerned. In Bringing Nature Home, Doug Tallamy notes, "A field rich in goldenrod, Joe-Pye Weed, boneset, milkweed, black-eyed Susan and dozens of other productive perennials supplies copious amounts of insect biomass for birds..."  Goldenrod supports 115 butterfly and moth species, the most by any herbaceous plant.   Asters are the next highest, supporting 112 butterfly and moth species.  

Further, Tallamy says that his own field of goldenrod and aster provides "refuge for hundreds of toads; food and nesting cover for indigo buntings, bluebirds, grosbeaks, and sparrows; a courtship arena for woodcocks in early spring; and a place for foxes, and great horned owls to catch rabbits, voles and mice in winter."


Many Connecticut garden club members enjoyed a whole day of learning at this year's Plant Science Day at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station's Lockwood Farm on August 6, 2014.  Federation 2nd Vice-President Leslie Martino set up an informative display about our many activities and manned it with Kathrine Neville.  Many thanks to them for greeting our members and introducing our Federation to new friends.  

Those of us in attendance realized that FGCCT is right on course with its theme, "Bee Kind to Pollinators, Plant Natives, Create Backyard Habitats." Many speakers and displays addressed aspects of these subjects.  Of particular note was a Main Tent address by Dr. Kimberly Stoner on "Honeybees and Bumble Bees - Their Problems and What You Can Do To Help."  There were hourly programs at the Bird and Butterfly Garden. 

Connecticut Grown linked up with the Connecticut Bee Keepers Association to produce a brochure, "Where Are the Honeybees?  What Can I Do To Help the Pollinators?"  They suggest planting a honeybee friendly garden with plants to attract pollinators such as maple, willow, blueberry, dwarf sumac, elderberry.  Suggested perennials include, sage, lupine, milkweed, coneflowers, aster, bee balm, and violets. Go to for a host of  information including a number of brochures on native bees and planting guides.


Why not embark on your own educational enrichment program this fall at one or more of the CT Federation's Study Schools?   Flower Show School, September 10-12 is already filled.   But it is not too late to sign up for Gardening Study School, September 23-25 or Environmental Study School, October 14-16.  These schools will be held at the Kellogg Environmental Center in Derby. 
National Garden Club members (all FGCCT members are NGC members) are invited to attend regional and national meetings.  The next New England Regional Meeting will be held in Burlington, VT, October 20-21 and the New England Regional Flower Show Symposium immediately follows on October 21-23.     

Our own CT Fall Awards Meeting is scheduled for October 29 at Aqua Turf in Plantsville.  Of special interest will be our Judges Council Flower Show, "A Bountiful Connecticut,"  staged in conjunction with our Awards Meeting.                  

Looking ahead, the national NGC Meeting will be held in Louisville, KY, May 13-17, 2015.  It promises to be a spectacular event with an array of fabulous pre-convention educational offerings.  Graduates of the three study schools (Consultants) will be able to apply for refresher credit for attending these special tours and lectures.                 

We hope you plan to attend one or more of these events.

* Jacqueline Connell




The FGCCT October 29th Awards Meeting at  Aqua Turf will be a very special one.  Plan to attend.

Trish Manfredi and the Judges Council will present a Standard Flower Show with horticulture and floral designs to educate us and delight our senses.  Did your club submit an Award  Application?  Come to this meeting to hear what your club and other clubs did to receive a silver tray or bowl.

There will be vendors for your shopping pleasure.  Choose a gift to give , or a  new floral design mechanic, a piece of jewelry or maybe a pretty scarf or new jacket.  Try your luck at our raffle or add a book to your gardening library.

Click here for the registration form.  No reservations will be accepted after October 22nd.

* Margaret Hopkins
Meetings Chair


How does visiting Burlington, Vermont, sound in the Fall? 
Perhaps enjoying Lake Champlain's waterfront park, or shopping at the Church Street Marketplace? You may visit local nurseries and museums, including the Historic Shelburne Museum.
There is a perfect opportunity to do so at the
New England Region Annual Meeting to be held October 20-21,
followed by our New England Region Symposium October 21-23. 

You are all members of the New England Region and your presence is very welcome and important to our region. You do not have to be a Flower Show Judge to attend the Symposium.  All are welcome.  There is so much to learn and enjoy in both design and horticulture.  

The very popular Julia Clevett will be speaking about "Those Maddening Mechanics" and
"Creativity: Its New Trends and Techniques."  

If you have not met Darlene Newell, you will be in for a treat as she talks about "Fat and Sassy Succulents" and "Wheel of Hortulana."
You will also enjoy in-house shopping with our vendors, including Catalpa Lane Pottery, Ken Swartz, Country House Floral and
Vermont Artisans.

Brochures and registration forms may be found on the NER website  You may also contact me or Annual Meeting Registrar, Mary Webster, at [email protected].  Symposium Registrar is Jane Murphy at [email protected]. Or you can go directly to our website,, and click on the registration forms in the marquee.

* Maria Nahom
NER Director

This month we would like to follow up on last month's article about flower show preparations.

Judges Council recommends an excellent book about flower show preparation. The book is titled Flower Show 101.   The book is available from Arranged for You (  

Flower Show 101
offers detailed descriptions of each chairman's responsibilities and checklists.   The book is designed to be photocopied so each chairman can receive his or her specific information in writing.   A flower show is easier to do if each person has their own tasks and he or she does not need to be concerned about everyone else's responsibilities. The content of the book is modeled on the Handbook for Flower Shows.

Just a reminder, the Handbook for Flower Shows (2007 edition) from National Garden Clubs, Inc., is the ultimate authority for flower shows. The Handbook can be purchased online from  or from our Federation Book Chair,  Nancy Cebik  ([email protected]).  

* Jessica Fischer
Flower Show School Chair

August 6, 2014

The Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut were well represented at Lockwood Farm in Hamden, CT, on August 6 for Plant Science Day.  The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station hosted the 104th event on a beautiful summer day.  People from all over the state thronged to see the exhibits, sample free ice cream, ask questions about plant diseases and pests, and hear speakers under the Main Tent.  

Featured speaker was Dr. Jeffrey S. Ward, Station Forester and Chief Scientist, Department of Forestry and Horticulture, who spoke on Managing the Roadside Forest:  Balancing Aesthetics and Utility Reliability. Dr. Mike Hoffmann, Director, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, presented the Samuel W. Johnson Memorial Lecture, Climate Change and Agriculture:  No Longer Business as Usual. In the afternoon Dr. Kimberly A. Stoner, Entomologist, Department of Entomology, spoke on Honey Bees and Bumble Bees - Their Problems, and What You Can Do To Help.

Under the Technical Demonstration Tent, scientists presented demonstrations on Compost:  How to Make and Use in Your Garden and Common Garden Weeds.  There were tours of the Native Woody Shrub garden, the Bird and Butterfly Garden, and a bus tour of the farm every half hour.  There was a Kids' Korner where children could pick up a passport and a goody bag.

Gov. Dannell P. Malloy presented the Century Farm Award to Holdridge Farm and Nursery from Ledyard, CT.  Holdridge Farm and Nursery have been in the same family since 1912, and today they operate as a vegetable farm and mail-order nursery for strawberry plants.

The FGCCT booth with exhibit by Leslie Martino.

Leslie Martino, Second Vice President, prepared an informative exhibit on The Federated Garden Clubs of CT, Inc., that featured hand-outs on the NGC Schools, Federation travel tours, and a map pin-pointing the state's 128 clubs and 15 Affiliates.  This is the first year The Federation has had an exhibit, and many people stopped by to ask questions and take hand-outs.  Manning the booth with Leslie was Kathrine Neville, former state Horticulture Chair.  Also in attendance at the farm were Jacqueline Connell, Nancy Cebik, Donna Nowak, Polly Brooks, Cathy Ritch, Ellie Tessmer, Pat Dray, Cheryl Basztura, and Ronnie Schoelzel.

Part of our team at Plant Science Day, left to right: Donna Nowak, Jacqueline Connell, Kathrine Neville, Leslie Martino, Polly Brooks, and Ronnie Schoelzel.

Plant Science Day is well worth the trip, and it's wonderful to witness our state scientists sharing their results in plant diseases and insect problems.  I took home a pile of information concerning vegetable diseases, updates on the woolly adelgid, and the emerald ash borer.  All free!
* Ronnie Schoelzel


Ground-nesting Bees
The Blue Mason Bee.

Who are these creatures, and why should we care about them?  70% of the native bees in North America (2800 species) fall in this category.  Without doing any math, that's a lot of bees doing a lot of pollinating.  They are solitary bees in that they create and provision their own nests.
One of the best known is the alkali bee.  Her affinity to alfalfa blooms and need for alkaline nesting sites has led to the creation of artificial nesting beds managed by alfalfa growers.
Not so well known, but important, are members of the Megachilid, Colletid and Andrenid families.  In English, those are the leaf-cutter/mason/carder bees, the polyester bees, and the mining bees.
Their common names reflect nesting styles. The leaf-cutter bee excises a circular piece of leaf, and flies it back to divide the nesting tunnel into brood cells.  Mason bees mix sand grains, chewed leaves and small pebbles with saliva to create a "mortar" for the brood cells.  Carder bees use fibers scraped from fuzzy leaves for the same purpose.
These bees will also occupy nest blocks and are managed for pollination on farms and in backyards.
Polyester bees are so-named for the waterproof lining they make for their brood cells.  The cellophane-like polymer that they secrete is applied to the wall of the tunnel with their paintbrush-like tongues.  They are important native pollinators and can be more effective than honey bees for some plants.
Gardeners frequently encounter mining bees because of their habit of nesting in lawns, especially in the spring. The warmer it is, the faster they dig their holes - sort of like a terrier going after a rabbit. If nothing else, they are aerating your lawn!
No matter what the name or habitat, these solitary bees are important.  Most of these bees are ephemeral - that is, they are present for a short time.  That time is usually in the spring.  So please be aware of these pollinators and do what you can to protect them.

* Lois Nichols
State Projects Chair

Share Your Garden

CFNews is asking members to submit a favorite photograph of their gardens to share with our readers. A special spot, an unusual design, any image from your garden that you think is distinctive is welcome. We will publish them in the color Constant Contact version of the newsletter as space permits. Simply email a .jpg file to Lynn Hyson by the 10th of the month at [email protected]. Thank you.

Images of bees on the flowers in Inge Venus' garden. Collage by Inge Venus.


The Birches

Birches (genus Betula) are represented by 16 native species in North America.   They are excellent sources of food for wildlife.  According to entomologist Doug Tallamy, birches support at least 413 species of butterflies and moths as well as producing flower buds and seeds eaten by songbirds, especially goldfinches, juncos, pine siskins and chickadees, as well as grouse, turkeys and small mammals.

Birches with exfoliating bark such as paper birch (Betula papyrifera), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and river birch (Betula nigra) are home to insects where they hide in the nooks and crannies of the bark.  This is a food source for birds such as woodpeckers during the winter months when other food is scarce.
In the natural landscape of colder climates, birches mix well with sugar and red maples, make good forest edge plants, or stand proudly as an interesting specimen grouping on their own.  River birches thrive by moist stream sides, while others, such as gray birch (Betula popufolia) and black birch (Betula lenta) can live on rocky slopes. Yellow birches are native to damp woods.  Birches grow to heights between 80 and 100 feet.  Because of their graceful, pale, slender trunks, birches were known as "shining birch" or "the Lady of the Woods."  Most birches have wide elliptical leaves that turn yellow in autumn.
The wood of birches is soft and light.  Traditionally it was used for such
common household goods as furniture, spoons, bobbins, tool handles, brooms and barrel staves.  The Native Americans used paper birch for canoes.  They stretched the bark over white cedar frames.  The seams were sewn with thread made from tamarack roots and the canoe was finished with a caulking of pine or fir resin.
In traditional medicine, the oil in birch bark was an astringent said to be beneficial to skin conditions.  The young leaves were infused or the inner bark was simmered to make a tea to ease gout or rheumatism.
Birch beer was made by boiling birch sap and honey and then adding ginger, lemon and cloves and allowing it to age.
Children "swung" on birch trees-they would climb a birch until it arched over and then it would spring back as they jumped off it.  Robert Frost wrote, "One could do worse than be a swinger of birches."

* Jacqueline Connell


The Earthworm

Lumbricus terrestris.

Today I am going to write about "Squiggly."  Yes, you guessed it - this article is all about earthworms.

The definition of Earthworm is a burrowing, annelid worm that lives in the soil.  Earthworms play an important role in aerating and draining the soil and in burying organic matter.

To be more specific, the common earthworm,
Lumbricus terrestris, is a detrivore, or litter eater.  They do this by grasping each leaf by stem or tip and gently backing down into their burrows.  The other species are geophages, or dirt eaters, that digest from soil what organics they come upon regardless of their source.  Geophagous earthworms both eat and defecate their castings underground instead of at the surface, leaving in their wake networks of tunnels sought out by plant roots for their fluffiness, moisture, and casting-packed nutrition.  So instead of raking away all the stuff that we see as unsightly, leave it for the worms.  

Now, we will all agree that earthworms are very important in our gardens.  But did you know that they are considered invasive in our forests?  Slow invasives granted, but a non-native species nevertheless.  And while we embrace earthworms in our compost piles, they are very bad when let loose in our forests. 

Peter Groffman, a microbial ecologist at the Cary Institute for Ecosystems Studies in Millbrook, New York, is studying the effect of earthworms in forests.  What he is finding is that where they are present, they are speeding up the process of breaking apart the dense forest floor, also known as the duff.  Although having earthworms present in your garden is good evidence that there is a lot of organic matter available, the forest floor is different. 

Earthworms aerate the forest floor soil faster than is natural.  They add nitrogen to the soil and change its chemistry. They allow quicker release of carbon from the soil.  This ends up damaging biodiversity - wildflowers and ferns that grow naturally in the woods suffer where worms have aerated the soil. 

Researchers at Cornell University have also found evidence that where earthworms feed, other invasive species have an easier time getting established.  Where worms chew, Japanese barberry and Asiatic bittersweet take root.

After chewing on all this scientific knowledge, let's embrace the earthworms in our gardens and discourage them in the forests.  How to discourage earthworms in the forest is a topic for another day.  Let me know if you have any good ideas.

Don't forget to have your garden certified by the National Wildlife Federation.  I'm beginning to get lists of clubs who have certified gardens, and the race is on to see who will win the tree next spring. Please let Barbara Romblad in the FGCCT Office know about the native trees you've planted or if your garden has been certified as a Wildlife Habitat.

Enjoy ALL the critters in your garden.

* Anne Harrigan
[email protected]


This month we thank the following clubs for their donations to the FGCCT Scholarship Fund.

Old Saybrook Garden Club  $100
Stamford Garden Club  $200
Orchard Valley  Garden Club (Marion)  $100

* Judy Joly
Scholarship Chair

EYE ON HORTICULTURE: The September Garden

Kalimeris integrifolia (Japanese Aster) at left, and
Vitex agnus castus (Chaste Tree)

How many of these long bloomers do you grow?

When I moved from Westport into Black Rock two years ago, I moved from a large property (2.3 acres) to a much smaller property (1/4 acre).

It was clear to me that plants in the new garden had to be chosen carefully - there wasn't enough room to grow everything I love. I began by making a list of long- blooming plants (plants that flower for two or more months) and built my garden around these solid performers.

To find out when different plants bloomed, I consulted Nancy DuBrule-Clemente's Succession of Bloom in the Perennial Garden. Published in 2004, it's one of my can't-do-without reference books. Find out more about it at
The bloom times listed here were taken from Nancy's book.
You'll notice that the plant names listed are very specific. I realize that not every gardener is fond of Latin names, but these are necessary because different species and cultivars of the same plant may bloom at different times, and in order to get the bloom period you desire, you must buy the exact plant that is listed here.

Many plants will repeat bloom if cut back or deadheaded, and they are listed in Nancy's book. The perennials and shrubs in this list promise continuous bloom (not repeat bloom). They may need to be continuously deadheaded, but they will give a continuous performance. Vines are not included in this list.

Blooms early June to late September
Oenothera, various (Evening Primrose)

Blooms early June to early October
Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum 'Summer Snowflake'
Viburnum tomentosum 'Watanabei'

Blooms early June through October
Geranium 'Rozanne'
Kalimeris integrifolia (Japanese Aster)
Knautia arvensis (Field Scabious)
Knautia macedonica varieties (Crimson Scabious)

Blooms mid June to mid August
Tanacetum parthenium varieties (Feverfew)

Blooms mid June through October
Scabiosa columbaris varieties
Scabiosa ochroleuca
Scabiosa 'Samantha Pink' and 'Tickle Me Pink'
Hydrangea 'Endless Summer'
Hydrangea serrata 'Acuminata Preciosa'
Rosa 'Hot Cocoa'
Rosa 'Knockout'
Rosa 'The Fairy'

Blooms mid June through mid November
Rosa Carefree series
Rosa Flower Carpet series

Blooms late June into late November
Veronica alpina 'Goodness Grows'

Blooms early July until mid September
Aster x frikartii varieties

Blooms mid July through October
Buddleia davidii varieties (Butterfly Bush)
Hydrangea paniculata 'Kyushu'
Hydrangea p. 'Limelight'
Hydrangea p. 'Pink Diamond'
Hydrangea serrata 'Acuminata Preciosa'
Veronica x 'Royal Candles'

Blooms late July through September
Agastache foeniculum 'Blue Fortune' (Anise Hyssop)
Calluna vulgaris varieties (Scotch Heather)
Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldsturm' (Black-eyed Susan)
Rudbeckia triloba (Brown-eyed Susan)

Blooms August through September
Centaurea nigra subsp. Rivulis (Common Knapweed)
Helenium 'Mardi Gras' (Sneezeweed)
Sedum alboroseum 'Medio-variegatus'

Blooms early August through October
Vitex agnus castus varieties (Chaste Tree)

Blooms mid August into late October
Calamintha, various (Calamint)
Callicarpa, various (Beautyberry)
Anemone tomentosa 'Robustissima' (Japanese Anemone)
Hydrangea paniculata 'Little Lamb'
Hydrangea p. 'Pink Diamond'

Blooms in September and October
Coreopsis integrifolia
Coreopsis 'Cr�me Brulee'
Coreopsis rosea varieties
Sedum 'Autumn Fire'
Sedum spectabile 'Autumn Joy'

Blooms mid September into early November
Sanguisorba menziesii 'Dali Marble'

Some of these plants are new to me and I look forward to learning more about them.

* Pamela Weil
Horticulture Chair


The Gardening Study School Scholarship is awarded yearly in the name of Penny Jarvis to any FGCCT garden club member attending a class.  The scholarship is renewable for consecutive classes taken to complete the course.  A name is drawn by the Gardening Consultants Council, and upon passing the exam, $75 of the course fee is reimbursed.  

The application for the scholarship is available at  under the link "Education Program."   Applications for this year are due September 22 or can be brought to class on September 23.  Those who submitted applications during last year's class do not need to reapply.  Address questions to Mary Sullivan ([email protected]).

REMINDER:  If it is five years since you completed the Gardening Study School or five years since your last renewal, then it is time to renew in order to maintain your Gardening Consultant status and membership in the Council.  It is necessary to register for the course and pay the fee but it is not necessary to repeat the exam.
* Mary Sulivan, Chair
Gardening Consultants Council

Environmental Studies School
Launches October 1

Join 59 fellow students for Environmental Studies Schools Course IV,
"The Living Earth- Water and related Issues" for a 2.5 hour field trip aboard the Norwalk Maritime Aquarium's brand new Research Vessel "Spirit of the Sound" as the capstone for two days of presentations All About Water.  

The four courses in ESS can be taken in any order. This is truth, not advertising.

The particulars regarding Environmental Studies School may be found by clicking here, or by contacting Polly Brooks, Chair, ESS, either through email at [email protected] or by phone at 860-567-4292.

* Polly Brooks
Environmental Studies School Chair

Meet Polly Brooks

To settle any confusion, Polly Brooks' real name is Marana, a family name chosen by her father. Her mother preferred Polly, and it was the easier, more familiar name that stuck.  Brooks has been our Environmental Studies School Chair for four years now.

As a member of the Litchfield Garden Club since 1983, Polly had served four terms as their Conservation Chair. When asked to chair ESS for The Federation, " I did it because it resonates with me. I thought, 'I could maybe do something here--and get something out of it.'"

"I love horticulture and gardening and I have found so many kindred spirits here-and that was not what I expected. I joined to humor my mother-in-law and I found that I was learning so much and having a ball." The first time she sat in on an ESS class, she met Donna Nowak, Ellie Tessmer and others who shared her interests and widened her horizons.

As the ESS Chair, Polly's job is to find instructors for eight classes each year that meet the stringent criteria of  the National Garden Clubs, which accredit our courses. They must be "scientists and academicians with very real credentials in the natural sciences," according to Polly. "I go to other events," she says,  such as CAES Plant Science Day, " to see who's presenting, to see if they are good, and to pick their brains."  Once she has her instructors, Brooks organizes the two-day program and applies for the accreditation.

"I am so thrilled with the line-up for October that I have asked the national head of Environmental Studies School to attend."

Polly says her garden at home is eclectic. It is sited on "an unprotected western ridge top in full sun. I grow nothing that has to be staked, or that can't take the wind. And I don't water. " She hired well known landscape designer Julie Moir Messervy to design the hardscaping and she grows mostly perennials, including many natives.

* Lynn Hyson
News Editor


A Standard Flower Show

CT Convention Center
February 15-22, 2014

As our cruise ship leaves the land down under, it travels across the Indian Ocean to our next Section in the Design Division of our state flower show, "Adventures in Africa."  Here we will dock on the coast of Kenya and explore its wonders.

The "Wonders of Kenya" Class is the show's Club Competition.  Here four garden clubs can use their vivid imaginations to create a vignette that will depict this theme.

Think of Nairobi's unique and unspoiled wildlife haven where rhinos, buffalos, cheetahs, zebras, giraffes and lions roam the plains.  Or, the Uhuru Gardens, the land of freedom.  Maybe Mombasa's magical old town, alive with the scent of spices and bright colors along with pristine beaches, will inspire you.

Here is where a garden club can shine with its creativity.  It's one of the most popular sections with the public.  They love to view the four different interpretations of this year's theme.

There are more exciting destinations on our cruise around the world.  Be sure to see them in the upcoming issues of the CFNEWS.  And, don't forget PORTS OF CALL, our state flower show at The CT Convention Center, Hartford, from February 15-22, 2014.

* Barbara Bruce
2015 Flower Show Chair

for 2015 Flower Show

All cruises need staff to help them be fun and successful.   Our FGCCT flower show, PORTS OF CALL, is no different.  As we travel to the Far East, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Down Under, Africa and the Arctic, please come aboard as a hostess for the show.  Not only is this a way to "see the world," but you receive a free ticket to the show in addition to having a day out with your gardening friends.  Two-hour shifts are available for all ports and all days of the show.  Contact Cathy Ritch, Hostess Chair, [email protected] or 203-452-5918.

* Cathy Ritch
Flower Show Hostess Chair

Update: Fracking

Hydraulic fracturing is still a hotly debated environmental and political issue. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a drilling technique that uses a pressurized mixture of several million gallons of water, chemicals and sand to fracture the rock.  This releases natural gas or oil present in the sedimentary shale and allows it to be piped to the surface.

Those in favor of fracking claim it has provided economic benefits. According to, it has unlocked numerous supplies of oil and natural gas from deposits of shale which have helped our country become less dependent on foreign energy supplies, created jobs and contributed to low natural gas prices.

However, there has been considerable opposition to fracking in the global green community according to the NY Times. Fracking can result in a number of potential impacts to the environment.

One concern is that one half of the fracking fluid returns to the surface as wastewater (a cocktail of chemicals, acids, detergents, and poisons). If disposed of improperly, wastewater can seep into drinking water. There have been reports of illegal dumping in both Texas and Pennsylvania.

Fracking contributes to air pollution. Methane gas and carbon dioxide are released from the underground into the atmosphere. This air pollution contributes to global climate change.

CNN reported that there is a risk of man-made seismic events when wastewater is injected back into the ground in disposal wells. States with fracking operations such as Texas, Oklahoma, Ohio and Colorado have seen a surge in earthquakes, according to The Huffington Post. An example is Oklahoma.  From the 1970's to 2008 the US Geological Survey found that central Oklahoma experienced 1 to 3 3.0 magnitude earthquakes per year. That number jumped to about 40 per year from 2009-2013.

Connecticut has no oil or gas deposits and, therefore, no fracking. However, with all the controversy surrounding fracking, our General Assembly took action and passed Senate Bill 237 this year. This Bill creates a three-year moratorium on the importation of fracking waste and all products containing the waste.

* Linda Helm
Legislation/Government Action Chair





To maintain your garden club's Tax Exemption status, your club MUST file with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) EVERY YEAR. You must file a form 990, 990-EZ, or 990N (the e-postcard).


Clubs that fail to file an annual 990-series return or notice, for three consecutive years, will AUTOMATICALLY lose their tax-exempt status.



or Go To, then click link for "Charities & Non-Profits."




Deadline for OCTOBER 2014 ISSUE  


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CT Federation NEWS

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