August 20, 2019
Volume 4, Number 1
For First-Generation Students, Studying Effectively Doesn’t Always Come Naturally. Instructors Can Help
Gail Horowitz noticed something peculiar about the first-generation students who were struggling in her chemistry classes. They studied as hard as their classmates. So why weren’t they doing as well?

That question led Horowitz, then a lecturer of chemistry at City University of New York Brooklyn College, to explore the challenges facing students who are the first in their families to go to college. They had drive and determination, she learned, but often lacked the skills needed to do well in rigorous courses.

Some of the mistakes first-gen students make are common to undergraduates: They focus on re-reading and memorizing to absorb what they’re learning, rather than summarizing material in their own words, or quizzing themselves, which are more effective techniques. But many also carry the burden of imposter syndrome – feeling like they don’t belong in college – or simply don’t know how college works. That, says Horowitz, discourages them from seeking out their professors during office hours or heading to the tutoring center for help. As a result they may spin their wheels even more furiously as they fall behind.

At Brooklyn College about 45 percent of students have parents without college degrees, Horowitz notes, so understanding the root causes of her students’ struggles was central to her work as an instructor. “You assume it’s an academic background thing,” she says. “But the initial research I did showed that students who sought help are successful.”
Horowitz, who now works at Bard High School Early College Newark as a faculty member in chemistry, reached out to me after I wrote about the importance of helping undergraduates develop the metacognitive skills necessary to become effective learners. It turns out, she’s written a book about some of those strategies, tailored to the needs of first-generation students.

She feels strongly that instructors should teach study skills to their students, rather than leaving that up to academic advisers or tutors. Not only are first-gen students less likely to seek out help, she says, they might not even know that they’re doing anything wrong.
“Almost all failing and borderline students tell me that they are studying and studying hard (typically 10 to 15 hours per week for my course alone),” she writes in Teaching STEM to First Generation College Students: A Guidebook for Faculty & Future Faculty. “But I then follow up by asking how they are studying. And most frequently I find that students who report that they are working very hard, yet are doing very poorly, are simply studying in the wrong way.

It’s not surprising that first-gen students may simply focus on re-reading and memorizing rather than asking themselves whether their strategies are effective, Horowitz says. Doubling down makes sense if you come from a family where getting ahead requires working harder, like taking on a second or third job.

Horowitz designed the book to appeal to a mass audience of STEM faculty. “The most effective person to tell students how to study for a particular course is the instructor,” she says. “They can easily put little pointers in their classroom about how students should be studying. I believe that could be revolutionary for first-generation college students.”
Horowitz suggests putting study tips into the syllabus and then reviewing them in class. These strategies may seem obvious to professors, she says, but not necessarily to students. The main one, she says, is to focus on problem solving, not reading: “If you have six hours a week to study for this course,” she says she tells students, “spend one hour a week reading and five hours doing problems.”

Another strategy she includes in her teaching: Explain how to use problem sets effectively. If you master one kind of problem set, move to the next group rather than doing every single one, or apply what you’ve learned in a different context. Don’t do problems while looking at the answer key. Also, don’t do problems without checking to see if your answers are right (she has seen students do both).

In reading-oriented classes, she recommends that, after reading each chapter, students write a single paragraph that synthesizes and summarizes the material. And on tests she often lists the amount of time students should spend on each problem. She started doing that after seeing students get stuck on one problem and then fail the test because they didn’t skip over it and move on.

She also lists a number of resources in her syllabus, including her office hours and the address and hours of the campus tutoring center. “This sends the message that this is normal,” she says. “You’re supposed to seek help; this is part of your job.”
Horowitz is unabashed about tracking down struggling students. “Please see me,” she’ll write on returned tests and quizzes. Students are more likely to come to her office if they feel like they have to, she notes. “For most of them it’s a big sense of relief that they’re having a conversation with you,” she says. “Most have been suffering in silence for a long time.”

If she has one piece of advice for her fellow instructors, it’s this: Don’t stereotype your first-generation students. They may not say a word in class. They may show up late. They may struggle. They may not use office hours. But that doesn’t mean students aren’t trying. They may simply be too busy, or overwhelmed, to ask for help. Reach out, she says. It will pay off for both of you.

– by Beth McMurtie, Teaching Newsletter: The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Thanks for reading Teaching. If you have suggestions or ideas, please feel free to email us at   dan.berrett@chronicle.combeth.mcmurtrie@chronicle.com, or  beckie.supiano@chronicle.com. If you have been forwarded this newsletter and would like to sign up to receive your own copy, you can do so here .
Announcing: Gather & Share Events
The FCTL is offering "  Gather & Share  " events on the 1st Monday of each month, from 3:45pm - 4:45pm in ADUC 310. The objective is to have a "topic" area and share a couple of ideas and then have folks gather and share about the topic.

The Next Gather & Share Event:
Topic: Student Engagement
When: Monday, September 9, 2019; 3:45pm – 4:45pm
Where: ADUC 310
Educator: FCTL
Synopsis: Join FCTL in exploring “Student Engagement” at this “Gather & Share” event. Come ready to “chat it up” with your colleagues on this important topic. Refreshments will be served.
Blackboard Buzz
Overview of Blackboard
Are you teaching online this semester? Are you new to Blackboard—MSU’s learning management system (LMS)? 
 
Blackboard is an easy-to-use online learning management system that is available 24/7. Faculty can post syllabi, readings and assignments in one easy to find location for their students. Blackboard also enhances faculty-to-student and student-to-student communication via email, virtual chats and discussion boards.
 
For general information about Blackboard, including course components, go to this introductory YouTube video. For on-campus support, email msuonline@moreheadstate.edu.
In-The-Know
What I Love About Teaching Campaign
Hello Educators!

We are looking for your response to the question "What do you love about teaching?"

Click the link below to share your response:
2019 Tri-State Conference on
Diversity & Inclusion

The Conference will be held September 27, 2019 at Morehead State University and is being chaired by staff in the Office of the President and Communications and Marketing. The 2019 conference theme is Equity in Education: Erasing Opportunity Gaps.  All workshops will be centered on the central theme of diversity and inclusion with a focus on achievement gaps for marginalized student populations. Information on past workshops can be found at www.tristatediversityandinclusion.com
 
Sponsoring Institutions
Ashland Community & Technical College
Marshall University
Marshall University School of Pharmacy
Ohio University-Southern
Morehead State University
Morehead State University-Ashland
Mountwest Community & Technical College
Shawnee State University
University of RIO Grande

Leadership in Higher Education Conference
October 3-5, St. Louis

A Leadership Conference that Gives You More!
Seven Unique Conference Tracks:
  • Academic Leadership and Professional Development
  • Administrative Leadership and Professional Development
  • Diversity and Inclusion
  • Program and Department Evaluation and Assessment
  • Faculty Hiring, Development, and Assessment
  • Institutional Culture and Climate
  • Special Topics in Academic Leadership

Networking:
Scaled for networking and reflection, this conference provides multiple opportunities to meet with other like-minded peers. 

Right-sized:
The Leadership in Higher Education Conference limits registrations to a manageable size to support a collaborative gathering of higher education professionals. We’ll examine trends, strategies, and best practices over two and a half impactful days.

Right-priced:
Budgets are scarce. That’s why this year, we’ve reduced our registration fee by $200. Still the same great conference—at an even better value!

For more information, click here .
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Morehead State University