A gift of life through safe water !  

Bob Tait - 503-810-8643
Extra Mile Ministries - PO Box 1856
Clackamas, Or 97015
Advice from the most famous microbiologist, who pioneered the use of vaccinations in the 1890s: Louis Pasteur. When he was asked the secret of his success, he responded that above all else, it was persistence. I will add that you need good data to be persistent about, and we certainly have that working with solar cookers and the WAPI in Sacramento, Bolivia, Nepal, Mali, Guatemala, and wherever else the sun shines. Continued overuse of wood fuel is non-sustainable. We need to persist until the knowledge we have spreads and becomes common knowledge worldwide. Dr. Robert Metcalf
As 2019 came to an end, our WAPI outreach around the world continues with 100 units being 
delivered to Peru, our brand-new outpost with Charlotte Marriot. We also sent 200 units with Tom Carter and Jim Dunn to the Dominican Republic. After the New Year celebration had calmed down, we received a message from Tom Stafford for a request for WAPIs to South Africa where his brother has introduced them to some locals in need. They were very well received.

We are about to enter our tenth year of producing and distributing these unique devices to countries who do not have potable water. We have surpassed our original goals by distributing over 70,000 plus units. Thanks to all our helpful distributors and volunteers who make this effort possible, the world is a better place because of those who are willing to give their personal time for those in need.

In our next article you will find scientific facts given by Dr. Robert Metcalf PHD, a retired microbiologist from the University of California at Sacramento is co-inventor of the WAPI and co-founder of Solar Cookers International. He narrates how disease microbes are killed, how they spread, and how the WAPI can and has helped. I hope that you find this information interesting. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us at  wapisfortheworld@gmail.com 503-810-8643.

Consider joining our project! The end results are amazing and personally rewarding knowing that you can actively be involved in saving lives around the world. Any and all donations go directly towards manufacturing and shipping costs. We are a 501(c)3 corporation and your donations would be tax-deductible.

Our next issue will have a report from Kenya, Africa. Until then, may peace of God fill your hearts,
With Warm Regards, Bob
Why boiling isn't necessary to kill
diseases-causing microbes
Worldwide, unsafe water is a major problem. An estimated one billion people do not have access to safe water. It is estimated that diarrhea diseases resulting from contaminated water kill about 2 million children and cause about 900 million episodes of illness each year.

The majority of diseases in developing countries today are infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and other microbes which are shed in human feces and polluted water which people use for drinking or washing. When people drink the live microbes, they can multiply, cause disease, and feces scattered into water, continuing the cycle of disease transmission.
Testing water for fecal contamination
How can one readily determine if the water from a well, pump, stream, etc. is safe to drink? The common procedure is to test the water for bacterial indicators of fecal pollution. There are two groups of indicators which are used. The first is the coliform bacteria which are used as indicators in developed countries where water is chlorinated. Coliform bacteria may come from feces or from plants. Among the coliform bacteria is the second indicator, E. coli. This bacterium is present in large numbers in human feces (approximately 100,000,000 per gram of feces) and that of other mammals. This is the main indicator used if water is not chlorinated. A water source containing 100 E. coli per 100 milliliters poses a substantial risk of disease.
A new approach to testing
in developing countries .
The standard method of testing water for the presence of coliforms and E. coli requires trained personnel and a good laboratory facility or field unit which are usually not present in developing countries. Thus, water supplies are almost never tested.

In 1987, the Colilert MPN Test (CLT) was introduced as the first method which used a defined substrate technology to simultaneously detect coliforms and E. coli. The CLT comes as dry chemicals in test tubes containing two indicator nutrients: one for coliforms and one for E. coli. The CLT involves adding 10 ml of water to a tube, shaking to dissolve the chemicals, and incubating at body temperature for 24 hours.

If no coliform bacteria are present, the water will remain clear. However, if one or more coliforms are present in the water, after 24 hours their growth will metabolize, and the water will change in color from clear to yellow (resembling urine). If E. coli is among the coliform bacteria present, it will metabolize and the tube will become fluoresce blue when a battery-operated, long-wave ultraviolet light shines on it, indicating a serious health hazard.
Effect of safe water on diarrhea in children
What would be the effect if contaminated water could be made safe for drinking by pasteurization or boiling? One estimate in the Philippines predicts that if families using moderately contaminated wells (100 E. coli per 100 ml) were able to use a high-quality water source, diarrhea among their children would be reduced by over 30%. 
Water Pasteurization Indicator
How can one determine if heated water has reached 65°C? In 1988, Dr. Fred Barrett (USDA, retired) developed the prototype for the Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI). In 1992, Dale Andreatta, a graduate engineering student at the University of California, Berkeley, developed the current WAPI. The WAPI is a polycarbonate tube, sealed at both ends, partially filled with a specialized wax which melts at 69°C. The WAPI is placed inside a water container with the wax at the top of the tube. A washer will keep the WAPI on the bottom of the container. When the wax melts and falls to the bottom of the WAPI, the water has been pasteurized, even if the water has cooled by the time you check it. Pasteurization has occurred, as long as the wax is at the bottom of the WAPI. Remove from heat and allow the wax to solidify for accurate readings, about 15 minutes before reuse. Turnover and pull the wire through to the other end. The WAPI is now ready for the next use.

The WAPI could be useful immediately for people who currently boil water to make it safe to drink or in natural disasters. The WAPI will clearly indicate when a safe temperature has been reached and will save fuel which currently is being wasted by excessive heating.

For questions or comments contact Dr. Robert Metcalf at  rmetcalf@csus.edu 
Have a friend you would like to introduce to
  WAPIs for the World ?
Please forward this WAPI email to them.
The September 2018 issue was on
"Pasteurization and Sterilization."
It's a great way to introduce
  • If you would like a WAPI for your emergency kit, you may purchase one or more for $2.00 each. Also, we package larger orders of 50 for $100. To order please respond to Margo at margoWAPI@gmail com or Bob at WAPIsfortheWorld@gmail.com
  • If you are in need of clean water, call and we will send you a WAPI for FREE.
  • Tell a friend about us so they can receive the WAPI email too. Coming March 2020.
When to use a WAPI?
  • When camping, hunting, bicycling or hiking on the back roads.
  • When your city says to boil your water, WAPI your water instead.
  • Everyone should have a WAPI in their emergency pack. 
  • WAPIs are used in the process of pasteurizing water as well as juice and milk.
A non-profit 501(c)3 ministry
assisting globally with clean and healthy water for survival .
WAPI, an acronym for Water Pasteurization Indicator, is needed and used in
developing countries and impoverished communities including the United States.
We teach villagers how to use the WAPI for clean water, personal hygiene and sanitation.  

WAPIs for the World .com - Bob Tait
503-810-8643 -- WAPIsfortheWorld@gmail.com