The NAHLN Update 2020
Volume 11, No. 2
Founding Principles and Features of the NAHLN
  • Operate within a quality management system
  • Establish and maintain competency of laboratory personnel
  • Use Standardized protocols, reference materials, and equipment
  • Use facilities with biosafety/biosecurity levels requisite for testing performed
  • Participate in communications and real time electronic reporting systems
  • Evaluate preparedness (identify and prioritize gaps) through scenario testing 
In This Issue:

Recurring call schedule

Upcoming calls/events

News Brief

Farm Bill Update

Evaluation of Messaging Competency Events, 2018-2020

Upcoming messaging competency schedule

Emergency Validation Exercises

Methods Technical Working Group Priorities for 2021


Getting to know us

2021 Quality Management System training
Recurring call schedule:

NAHLN Coordinating Council (CC) calls occur on the third Monday of each month.
NAHLN Methods Technical Working Group (MTWG) Core group calls occur on the second Wednesday of each month.
NAHLN Exercises and Drills Working Group (EDWG) calls occur on the third Friday of each month. People interested in serving on this group should email the NAHLN Program Office (NPO) by clicking here.
NAHLN IT committee core group and general membership calls occur bi-monthly on the first Wednesday of the month. People interested in attending either the core or general call can do so by selecting the personnel contact options of either IT Core Committee member or IT General committee member in the APHIS laboratory Portal.

Upcoming calls/events:
  • December 17, 1PM CT Quarterly call with NAHLN Laboratory Directors
  • January 20, 1PM CT MTWG General Membership call

Input Welcome! 

We appreciate hearing from you! 
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Fun Facts
Did you know the FAD PReP Material and References website includes information on:
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)
  • Virulent Newcastle Disease (vND)
  • and many more useful resources.

 News Brief:
  • The NAHLN Quality Standard documentation will be included in the assessment of all NAHLN laboratories for Quality System Accreditation (Levels 1 and 2 NAHLN laboratories) and NAHLN Approval (Level 3 NAHLN laboratories) beginning in 2021. The fiscal year 2020 Matrix will include a footnote to (inform laboratories to) provide justification for any lapse in accomplishments due to COVID-19. The NAHLN Executive Committee will consider using the previous year’s score or an average score as a replacement for laboratories on a case by case basis.
  • The NAHLN Program Office (NPO) recognizes the efforts of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD), a NAHLN partner, to address the NAHLN Farm Bill funding distribution so that current needs are addressed, and capacity is improved, while in addition, capabilities are enhanced through an appropriate competitive process.
  • VS will significantly reduce the data required in NAHLN electronic messages to provide a consistent standardized message across NAHLN approved diseases. Current schema will remain the same with all remaining data fields included as optional. Matching requirements will be included for any future order messages.
  • The CC and MTWG will develop focus groups to explore how POC testing can be incorporated into the NAHLN

Article submitted by Traci Imlau, Program Assistant, NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA.
Farm Bill Update
APHIS awarded $5.1 million in support of 30 projects from 21 NAHLN laboratories in 21 states that enhance test method development for high consequence animal disease, emergency preparedness, data management and exercises/drills for laboratories. Click here for list of the 2020 NAHLN Farm Bill Projects.

The FY2020 NAHLN funding opportunity was announced on July 15 and project proposals were accepted from eligible entities through September 14. NAHLN received 59 project proposals totaling approximately $10.1 million in requested funds. A total of 27 NAHLN laboratories from 25 States submitted proposals. NAHLN staff completed initial eligibility screening and moved all proposals forward for review. Projects included in the proposals support the following priorities:

Test Method Development and Validation
  • NAHLN scope and emerging diseases – Evaluate additional reagents and equipment for use with current NAHLN standard operating procedures. The following NAHLN scope diseases: chronic wasting disease, African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) will be prioritized. Evaluate point-of-care testing options for potential use in the NAHLN.

Enhancing Emergency Preparedness
  • Equipment – Explain, specifically how requested equipment will enhance preparedness.
  • Training – Explain, specifically how requested training will enhance preparedness.

Electronic Data Management
  • Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) – Coordinate efforts to provide all laboratories access to a version of their current LIMS that includes required data collection fields for reporting test results to NAHLN.
  • Electronic messaging support – Coordinate efforts to provide all laboratories with mechanisms to improve laboratory messaging capability. Develop tools to assist with data extraction and mapping data to current HL7 schema or to have real-time access to status of message receipt. Work with LIMS vendors to develop user friendly interfaces. Develop solutions for data collection and submission hurdles, sending results using multiple Program object identifiers (OIDs) based on disease.

Exercises and Drills
  • Develop and conduct laboratory centered exercises or drills designed to enhance disease outbreak surge testing preparedness for NAHLN.

There were 27 reviewers from within and outside of Veterinary Services. Both internal and external subject-matter experts were asked for input as appropriate. Projects were recommended for funding based on the quality of the proposals and on how well they met the identified criteria. This process was completed in 30 days.

Article submitted by Traci Imlau, Program Assistant, NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA and by Christina Loiacono, Coordinator, M.S., PhD., NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA.
Evaluation of Messaging Competency Events, 2018-2020
Evolution of Messaging Competency Events
Messaging competencies were developed in 2018 at the request of the NAHLN laboratories to provide a venue for practicing sending electronic messages to Veterinary Services’ (VS) LMS database. Messaging competencies allow laboratories to practice their electronic messaging capability for diseases that they do not test for routinely, as well as provide a spot check to verify that periodic messaging updates are being integrated correctly into the laboratory’s message. Other benefits include ensuring that all IT systems and software are functioning properly and serving as an early detection mechanism for any messaging issues not previously identified. 

Since 2018 the number of laboratories messaging have steadily increased, from 24 laboratories in 2015 to 55 laboratories in 2020 (Figure 1). Similarly, the number of laboratories participating in messaging competencies have also increased from 40 laboratories in its inception in 2018 to 53 laboratories in 2020, a 32.5% increase over three years. This trend follows the requirement initiated by the NAHLN Program Office in 2018 to have all Level 1 laboratories messaging all diseases they are approved to test for by the end of the federal fiscal year 2019 (Sep 30, 2019) and all Level 2 laboratories to be meet the same requirement by the end of FY2020 (Sep 30, 2020). Similarly, all Level 3 laboratories must meet this requirement by Sep 30, 2021, or the end of FY 2021. 
NAHLN Laboratory Participation.
Figure 2 depicts the number of participating laboratories for each of the nine messaging competency events provided by the NAHLN, from 2018 through 2020. Most laboratories in the NAHLN are approved to test for avian influenza (IAV-A), Newcastle disease (APMV-1), ASF, CSF and FMD, which is reflected in the number of laboratories participating in messaging competencies for these diseases. 
For 2018-2020, a competency event was held twice a year for all diseases, and quarterly for IAV-A and FMD. Laboratories were required to participate in at least one competency for each disease they were approved to test for but could participate in more if they chose to do so.

A 255% increase in messages submitted by laboratories for these competency events occurred from 2018 to 2020. In 2018, slightly over 100 messages were submitted for these competency events, while over 360 messages were submitted in 2020 (Figure 3). Correspondingly, an increase in error-free messages was also observed, from 29% of messages with no errors in 2018 to 62% of messages with no errors in 2020.  
Evaluation of Messaging Competency Errors.
For these competency events, laboratories had the option of providing a message sent to the NAHLN LMS ‘Production’ database, representing real data submitted within the past three months, or submitting a message to the LMS ‘Test’ environment. Messages sent to LMS ‘Test’ contained artificial data and are meant to evaluate message structure and content only. 

Data from the last three years show that the number of messages evaluated from both the ‘Production’ and ‘Test’ environments have increased by 255%. However, the overall percentage of messages evaluated from the ‘Production’ environment has decreased by 49% during this same time (Figure 4). The increase in messages sent to LMS ‘Test’ suggests that many laboratories do not routinely receive samples for testing for many of these foreign animal diseases, thus had no testing data sent to VS in the three months prior to the competency. 
The next step was to assess if there were differences in error rate between messages sent to the LMS ‘Production’ environment and LMS ‘Test’. Since messages may be slightly different within the same laboratory depending if they are targeting the ‘Production’ or ‘Test’ environment, it is critical to confirm that the ‘Test’ messages adequately reflect data that would be sent to LMS ‘Production’ when needed. 
As seen in Figure 5, both types of messages saw an upward trend in the number of error-free messages over the last three years. Most notably, the percentage of error free messages submitted to the LMS ‘Production’ site has increased each year. A similar increase in error free messages was seen in ‘Test’ messages from 2018 to 2019, but the percentage of error-free messages remained at the same from 2019 to 2020.  
The types of errors identified for each year of messaging competencies has changed slightly over time (Table 1). This implies that as one type of error is being corrected by participating laboratories, other errors are being more commonly identified, which is supported by the steady increase in the percentage of error free messages across the last three years.  
The spm.2/eip.1/ei.3 (assigning authority) field was originally used when messaging was first implemented within the NAHLN to carry the Program OID information. Originally it was thought that all programs would assign specimen IDs. However, in 2017 a change was made to have laboratories utilize (orc.4) the referral number assignee, for transmitting the Program OID into their message. This caused the Program OID data to be moved from spm.2/eip.1/ei.3 field to the orc.4/ei.3 field, and the spm.2/eip.1/ei.3 field now should be blank. Thus, most of the errors associated with this field were a result of updating this field across all laboratories and all messages sent by an individual laboratory. 

The actual test results within a message are found in the obx.5 fields. For the NAHLN messaging competencies, most of the errors for obx.5 were caused by leaving this required field empty. Secondarily, either an incorrect value or incorrect obx.5 fields were being used depending on the type of result that was being messaged (numeric, structured numeric, coded with exceptions, or string).

The HL7 message also contains an obr.31 (reason for submission) segment that indicates why the sample is being tested for a specific disease. Errors associated with obr.31 were primarily due to the message containing a reason for testing that was not listed in the corresponding messaging guide for that disease. For example, currently there are no active surveillance programs within VS for FMD. Therefore, samples being tested by a laboratory for FMD are generally assumed to be associated with a foreign animal disease (FAD) investigation. FMD messages containing a reason for submission other than “F”, or foreign animal disease investigation, are usually considered to be an error. Occasionally, either blank fields or an inaccurate text description was also observed for this field. 

If the disease a laboratory is testing for is a foreign animal disease, an official state or federal regulatory investigation number will often be assigned to the case. This number is transmitted within the HL7 message in the orc.4/ei.1 (FAD/referral number) field. Errors identified for this field during messaging competency events primarily were due to it being blank when it should have been populated with a FAD number. Secondarily, the wrong information was being sent in this field, for example a specimen ID or accession number. Occasionally the incorrect format for FAD numbers was also observed.

The spm.2/eip.1/ei.1 (field specimen ID) field is reserved for any identification that is applied to a sample by whomever collects the sample prior to sending it to a NAHLN laboratory. Most commonly errors in the message associated with this field were due to either containing the overall animal ID or containing the identification applied to the sample by the laboratory once the sample arrives at their facility.

Finally, the orc.4/ei.3 (Program OID) is a specialized number that is used for routing messages internally within VS. Its main function is to identify which of the APHIS animal health programs the test results are associated with. An example of a Program OID is 2.16.840.1.113883., for FMD. Errors associated with this field in messaging competencies for the last three years most commonly had to do with the incorrect OID being in this field, especially if test results for two different diseases (example ASF and CSF) were being sent in the same message.  
Summary and Conclusion
Overall, the initial goals of the messaging competencies have been met; namely checking and improving the overall quality of the data being provided to VS for all diseases laboratories are able to submit testing results for electronically. The types of errors are also changing over time, which indicates that the messaging competency process is maturing, allowing for the most common errors to be fixed first, followed by the less common errors. 

The next step in the evolution of the NAHLN messaging competency events is to reduce the frequency of the events to alleviate burden on personnel and other resources for both the NAHLN laboratories and the NAHLN Program Office. This has been implemented, and for FY2021 messaging competency events will occur quarterly. Next, VS and the NAHLN will work towards implementing quality checks as messages are sent to the APHIS servers, providing a more automated and real-time review of quality for all messages.

Article submitted by Beth Harris, Associate Coordinator, NAHLN Program Office USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA  
Upcoming messaging competency schedule
Emergency Validation Exercises
During the last three weeks of September, NAHLN labs were given the opportunity to participate in one of three Emergency Validation Exercises. The exercise scenarios gave representatives from the NAHLN laboratories, NAHLN program office, and Reference Laboratory the opportunity to practice the Emergency Validation Process to validate a new sample type after a foreign animal disease detection/outbreak. Representatives from the VS National Preparedness and Incident Coordination participated as well. The exercise scenarios choices were based on ASF, Newcastle disease (vND), or FMD. The exercise focused on the Emergency Validation process and did not include testing of samples. The exercise took participating laboratories approximately three hours or less to complete.

Article submitted by John Bare, DVM, Associate Coordinator, NAHLN Program Office USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA  
Methods Technical Working Group Priorities for 2021
The MTWG core committee held their annual meeting virtually this year on August 26-28 due to the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic. This year’s annual meetings addressed current hot topics in animal disease testing within the NAHLN and developed priorities for the upcoming year. There were nine priorities identified for the MTWG to address in 2021 (Table 1). A description of each of these priorities is given below.
2nd Vendor - Bio-Rad Thermocycler - IAV-A
The first of these priorities is from a standing sub-committee of the MTWG that is charged to evaluate new technologies for use within the NAHLN so that more than one manufacturer for test reagents and equipment platforms can be incorporated where feasible. The sub-committee was charged in 2019 to evaluate the BioRad CFX thermocycler for use with current IAV-A SOPs. Originally, the BioRad CFX96 platform was targeted for use with multiple NAHLN disease SOPs, but due to concerns with a higher than expected rate of false positive results for diseases other than IAV-A during the initial screening in 2017, the committee narrowed their scope to evaluate the BioRad IDE platform with the IAV-A SOP instead. The IDE platform is designed for use in human and food safety laboratories and uses a slightly different algorithm for setting automatic thresholds. Furthermore, the software for the IDE platform contains pre-loaded protocols already built in. This past year, the NAHLN MTWG core committee worked with BioRad to perform a small side-by-side comparison in two laboratories. Each laboratory tested the extracted samples provided by NVSL on both the BioRad CFX96 and IDE platforms for testing the IAV-A matrix, H5 and H7 PCR assays. Results from this testing were reviewed by the core committee, with no significant differences noted between the platforms. Thus, BioRad has agreed to initiate work with their software development team for incorporating the IAV-A protocols into the IDE system. Once this has been completed, a final validation of the IDE platform can occur. 
Change request process for
 NAHLN Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
The second priority is one carried over from the 2020 priority list, and currently in progress. The scope of this priority is to develop a standardized process for NAHLN laboratories to suggest updates or other changes to current NAHLN SOPs. This would provide all NVSL reference laboratories that develop these SOPs a consistent method for gathering input on their SOPs from the laboratories using them. This input would then be evaluated as part of the routine document review process inherent in NVSL’s quality management system. This process is different from the current deviation process already in place for NAHLN SOPs in that this new change request process is not intended to be used if there is an immediate need to test samples using a modified method. 

The new process follows a similar format to the deviation process. A form will be completed by the requesting NAHLN laboratory that provides information on which SOP and what type of change is being requested. The form will then be forwarded to the NVSL reference laboratory by the NPO. The NVSL reference laboratory will review the request and either approve or deny it. If denied, an explanation of the denial would also be included in the response and provided back to the NAHLN laboratory. If approved, the NVSL reference laboratory would incorporate the suggestion into their next version of the SOP. Finally, the NPO would maintain a tracking spreadsheet posted on the APHIS Laboratory Portal for review by all NAHLN laboratories. 

This process is in its final stages of completion, with the change request form and accompanying instructions being finalized in NVSL’s quality management system. Once this is finished the NPO will host a training webinar for all NAHLN laboratories on this process and distribute the forms for NAHLN laboratory use. 
Thermocycling harmonization
The intent of this priority is to harmonize thermocycling conditions for the IAV-A matrix, H5 and H7 assays so all three PCRs can be run simultaneously. NVSL’s Diagnostic Virology Laboratory (DVL) has completed validation testing for this, which includes inter-assay reproducibility, limit of detection, and diagnostic performance characteristics (performed on both avian and swine diagnostic samples). Still pending is the optimization of threshold testing. Once this is completed the data will be provided to a statistician for evaluation, with an estimated date of December 2020, to provide the final data set back to the MTWG core committee for review.  
Reducing Proficiency Training (PT) burden 
for NAHLN and NVSL laboratories
During its annual meeting Aug 24-26, the NAHLN CC brought forward a request to streamline the NVSL PT process to reduce burden to both the laboratories and the NVSL reference laboratories. The CC has charged the MTWG with evaluating previous PTs to identify error rates across PTs and causes of these errors, and to identify efficiencies to incorporate into the PT process. 
Incorporating ASF Point of Care (POC) testing into the NAHLN
The NAHLN CC also discussed POC testing at its annual meeting. It was recognized that policy around the use of POC testing in the NAHLN will need to be developed, but as part of those policy discussions a better understanding of the technical capabilities of current POC tests will be needed. Thus, the NAHLN CC has also charged the MTWG with developing information and recommendations on POC tests that are available now for ASF testing and potential deployment to the NAHLN. This would include a gap analysis of the current field-deployable tests and recommendations for training on conducting the field tests, test oversight by NAHLN laboratories, and reporting. 
Facilitating interaction between NAHLN laboratories
and NVSL reference laboratories.
This priority is to develop activities for promoting interactions between NAHLN and NVSL reference laboratories. The tabletop exercise held at Plum Island during 2019 was very helpful for both sides to develop a better understanding of how each operates. The MTWG core committee would like to continue these exercises/engagements between the two groups to strengthen connections and improve communications. 
Improving turnaround time for validation process
The method used for validating NAHLN protocols is recognized as being a very high quality, although lengthy, process. The MTWG core committee has identified the need to evaluate the process to determine if there are ways to streamline it, thus reducing the overall time necessary to fully validate a procedure for deployment to the NAHLN laboratories. 
Regional testing during outbreaks
This priority will establish a sub-committee to develop additional options for ensuring testing is completed within the timeframe needed by regulatory officials and industry during outbreak situations when local NAHLN laboratory capacity has been reached. 
Complete outstanding methods comparisons
This priority would focus on any methods comparisons that have been initiated that are over one year old, with the goal of either completing them by determining next steps and resources needed for completion or withdrawing the methods comparison and cancelling all activities associated with it. 
Next steps for the MTWG will be to stand up sub-committees for the ASF POC testing and evaluating NVSL PTs. Sub-committee memberships will be finalized at the November MTWG core call, and initial meetings planned for the first of December. As priorities are accomplished, additional subcommittees will be convened to address the next priorities on the overall list.  

Article submitted by Beth Harris, Associate Coordinator, NAHLN Program Office USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA  
The following abstracts will be presented at the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases 2020 Virtual Conference December 5-8, 2020.

Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis isolates from the National Animal Health Laboratory Network Antimicrobial Resistance Pilot Project, 2019.

M. G. Abatcha1, J. Hicks3, K. Lantz3, M. Srednik1, L. Schlater3, B. Harris2 
1 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education 
2 National Animal Health Laboratory Network-NVSL-USDA-APHIS, 

Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of bovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates. 

Jessica Hicks1, Beth Harris2, Diana Short3, Kathe Bjork3, Kris Lantz1, Mustapha Abatcha4
1 USDA-APHIS-VS-DB, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames IA 50010
2USDA-APHIS-VS-DB, National Animal Health Laboratory Network, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames IA 50010
3USDA-APHIS-VS-PR, National Animal Health Monitoring System, 2150 Centre Ave, Bldg B, Fort
Collins, CO 80521
4 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Getting to know us:
Mustapha Abatcha
Mustapha Abatcha joined the NAHLN program office in February 2020, as an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Fellow. He will be working on the NAHLN antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pilot project to develop a national-level system to monitor antimicrobial resistance in veterinary bacterial pathogens from domestic and companion animals. Mustapha will collaborate with the NVSL's bioinformatics team in identifying AMR genes and pathogenic virulence determinants from the multiple bacterial pathogens that have been sequenced.

When asked to share his thoughts on the NAHLN program/mission, Mustapha replied,
“The NAHLN plays a vital role in enhancing the capabilities of a national veterinary diagnostic laboratory in early detection and surveillance of animal diseases in the USA.”

Mustapha received his first degree in Veterinary Medicine at the University of Maiduguri in Nigeria, an MSc in Molecular Biology (Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2014) and a PhD in Molecular Microbiology (Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2018).

Mustapha has served as a Veterinary Research Officer at the Veterinary Research Institute in Nigeria as a National Service. Then he worked as Veterinary Officer at the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Yobe State, Nigeria.

When asked to share an unusual or interesting job experience, Mustapha replied,
“I work as a Postgraduate Research Fellow, while undergoing my doctoral study at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The project, I worked on is “AMR and genotyping of Foodborne bacterial pathogens (notably Salmonella and Listeria) from vegetables and poultry processing environment across Peninsular Malaysia” with my supervisory teams (Prof. Gulam and Dr. Effahrizah). And am very grateful for their guidance. During my candidature, I got to know more about Malaysian culture, foods and the country with is interesting and educative.

Later as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the USM with my same supervisor. This time around project involved was on Vibrio species from different varieties of fish. Try to know more on the AMR pattern and virulence genes. This exposure gave me focus and determination in all what I do, which has immensely change my perspective in the world of research.”

Mustapha is married with two children, a son Nabeel and daughter Nadia. In his free time, he enjoys running, playing football, and traveling. He has adapted from a duo season of summer/rainy season to the four seasons of Iowa and the sometime extreme daily temperature changes.

Welcome to NAHLN, Dr. Mustapha Abatcha!
Article submitted by Traci Imlau, Program Assistant, NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA.
2021 Quality Management System Training
NAHLN Laboratories are held to a high standard in order to assure the efficiency and credibility of the Network. All NAHLN laboratories must have an implemented Quality System consistent with ISO 17025 standards. This can be demonstrated through accreditation, by AAVLD or by another accrediting body, to the ISO 17025 standard. If a NAHLN laboratory is not accredited, it must be willing to participate in regular site visits and must be approved by APHIS-VS.
To assist NAHLN Laboratories in meeting this requirement and to continuously improve quality management systems throughout the Network, the NAHLN Program Office, in collaboration with members of the AAVLD Accreditation Committee, will deliver two courses during the summer of 2021, at the National Center for Animal Health in Ames, Iowa:

BASIC Quality Management System Training Program
  • The training program will provide an interactive environment that will include training on quality system requirements, such as document control, records, equipment, internal auditing, and corrective actions. In addition, a training laboratory will provide the opportunity for participants to conduct an audit, recognize non-conformances, analyze the root cause, and write corrective actions.
ADVANCED Quality Management System Training Programs
  • The training program will provide an interactive, discussion-based environment that will include training on quality system requirements related to client-centric aspects, the role of IT, statistical quality control, and risk assessments/improvement.

We look forward to holding the course and will announce the course dates as soon as it is safe to do so!

Article submitted by Traci Imlau, Program Assistant, NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA
Round up: 
Welcome to the new MTWG co-chair:
Dr. Beate Crossley, California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory, will serve as the MTWG state co-chair.

Thank you to the former MTWG co-chair:
Dr. Rachel Reams, formerly of the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

Article submitted by Traci Imlau, Program Assistant, NAHLN Program Office, USDA APHIS VS D & B, NVSL, Ames, IA.
Abbreviation / Acronym Key
 Click Here for Volume 11, No.2 Acronym Key

The following link show a map and laboratory list of laboratories that have been approved as part of the NAHLN Testing Network.