Functional amino acids (FAA) by definition pertain to non-protein synthesizing metabolism only and rather not to protein synthesis.
Although we cannot go into the latest details on how PNA Technology can be used to overproduce the desired L-amino acid in fermentation culture here also known as 'large molecular pharma' (referring to the peptide nucleic acid-carrier molecule gene silencer entity), as an approach, we can say that this technique has the added benefit avoiding mutational cultures that require prior extensive biochemical study as the biosynthetic pathways involved, culture maintenance and regular quality control or assessment, viz. genetic stability.
Inventory of Functional Amino Acids (FAA) and their Role in Metabolism and Physiology for Livestock Production.
We will now discuss amino acid function outlining only those participating in non-protein synthesizing metabolism referred to previously.
There are various amino acids that have been outlined to improve intake, growth and develop-ment, reproductive performance and lactation, and now, as we will deal later on, in Issue 7 of this Weekly newsletter, discussed in relation to neuroregeneration and neurotrophic functions implicated in the human brain with the following: cognition, problem solving and mental processing, and also, immunomodulation, against lifestyle or, what are referred to also as, occupational-related diseases and also infectious diseases, in human health, and by extrapolation, to production parameters for farm livestock, and further to this, their mental and physical well being, especially hi-bred or pure-bred, hi-producing livestock, including for e. g. beef animals although only speculative, at this time.
The amino acids that are predominant in the literature are: 1) tyrosine (TYR)- precursor to serotonin and dopamine which increases hunger drive and intake via the hypothalamic centre and increases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and with serotonin increases neurological function and thus animal well-being; note, it is unknown what amino acid(s) instigate GnRH as a secretologue and is yet to be tested via I.V. introduction and radioimmunoassay; 2) phenylalanine (PHE)- improves lean body mass (LBM) and meat quality via growth releasing hormone (GRH) and growth hormone (GH); 3) tryptophan (TRP)- as with both TYR and PHE; 4) arginine (ARG)- a major amino acid studied implicated in improving LBM or meat quality; and in the case of sows and oral administration with piglets leads to increased birth weight, more uniform litter size and normal digestive development and digestive health; 5) histidine (HIS)- increases milk production, particularly, in livestock on dairy ensiled diets and also increases LBM or meat quality; the rest on our list of amino acids being studied currently are: 6) methionine (MET), 7) lysine (LYS), 8) leucine (LEU), 9) glutamine (GLN) and 10) carnitine (CAR) and have similar effects on production, as with 4) ARG, previously.
It should be added as a fact that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) (= LEU + isoleucine, ILE + valine, VAL) also play a role in immunomodulation, supporting immuno cellular function and also take part in cell signaling in the inflammatory response or process.