April 11, 2019
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Understanding Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Exosomes

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Skin Tissue Engineering: Wound Healing Based on Stem-Cell-Based Therapeutic Strategies
Normal wound healing is a dynamic and complex multiple phase process involving coordinated interactions between growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and various cells. Any failure in these phases may lead wounds to become chronic and have abnormal scar formation. Chronic wounds affect patients’ quality of life, since they require repetitive treatments and incur considerable medical costs. Thus, much effort has been focused on developing novel therapeutic approaches for wound treatment. Stem-cell-based therapeutic strategies have been proposed to treat these wounds. They have shown considerable potential for improving the rate and quality of wound healing and regenerating the skin. However, there are many challenges for using stem cells in skin regeneration. In this review, we present some sets of the data published on using embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and adult stem cells in healing wounds. Additionally, we will discuss the different angles whereby these cells can contribute to their unique features and show the current drawbacks.

Sweat Gland Organoids Contribute to Cutaneous Wound Healing and Sweat Gland Regeneration
Sweat glands perform a vital thermoregulatory function in mammals. Like other skin components, they originate from epidermal progenitors. However, they have low regenerative potential in response to injury. We have established a sweat gland culture and expansion method using 3D organoids cultures. The epithelial cells derived from sweat glands in dermis of adult mouse paw pads were embedded into Matrigel and formed sweat gland organoids (SGOs). These organoids maintained remarkable stem cell features and demonstrated differentiation capacity to give rise to either sweat gland cells (SGCs) or epidermal cells. Moreover, the bipotent SGO-derived cells could be induced into stratified epidermis structures at the air−liquid interface culture in a medium tailored for skin epidermal cells in vitro.
Biomedical Applications of Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography
Isotope dilution is used to determine the quantity of a chemical substance in a sample. In this method, isotopically enriched material is added to a sample which leads to a "dilution" of the standard. Random sampling is then performed to give the ratio of the standard and sample, which can then be used to infer the quantity of material within the sample. Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography is a potent method to determine carbohydrates and sugar levels in alcohol. Mono-and disaccharides can be simultaneously separated and identified with a detection limit of 50 pmol. This method allows the detection of glucose at low isotopic dilution levels ranging from 0.1–1%, while sorbitol can be detected at a labeled/unlabelled ratio of 1:1. These can be detected in samples such as blood serum or amniotic fluid. This has also been used in clinical investigations to determine the concentration of sorbitol in amniotic fluid and in children that suffer from glycogen storage disease type I.

Restrict Movement, Door Openings to Reduce SSI Risk During Surgery
Findings from a multicenter, observational study conducted in France revealed an association between the movements of staff in the operating room, or OR, during surgery and the risk for surgical site infections. “We aimed to objectively describe and assess staff behaviors in the OR and their variability by recording staff movements using a motion tracking system and door-openings detection system,” Gabriel Birgand, PhD, a researcher affiliated with several institutions in Paris, and colleagues wrote. “We also assessed correlations between movements of the OR personnel and the [surgical site infection (SSI)] risk, as approximated by surrogates of the exogenous infectious risk, in a panel of ORs from two clean surgical specialties.”

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