November 26, 2014   Vol. V, Issue 48
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Spinal Trauma in Young Children   

The immature spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from the adult one. This results in unique characteristics of pediatric spinal trauma.


A review of 206 children treated for spinal injury in Pediatric Trauma Center of whom:


a.    57 were infants/toddlers (IT) (ages 0-3 years).


b.    149 were young children (Y) (ages 4-9 years), indicates that:


1.    Motor vehicle collisions are the most common cause of injury in both groups (however 19% of IT patients are non-accidental).

2.    IT patients more often present with upper cervical injury and sustain ligamentous injury more frequently.

3.    Y patients have more compression fractures of the spine.

4.    While neurologic injuries occur in both groups (Y > IT), IT patients more frequently present with complete loss of function or hemiplegia and have a much higher mortality (25%).


Journal of Pediatrics Orthopedics 

Etiologies of seizures around the time of vaccination. 

A study of the medical data from 990 children during the first two years of life with seizures within 24 hours of administration of an inactivated vaccine or 5-12 days after a live attenuated vaccine indicates that an underlying cause is identifiable in 65% (e.g. genetic-based seizure syndromes or structural defects, etc.) of children. These data should enhance public support of vaccination programs.



Neonatal Citrulline concentrations in dried blood samples to predict necrotising enterocolitis (NEC).

Low Citrulline levels are a marker of low bowel enterocyte mass, which may be associated with a predisposition to NEC.


A study of 361 babies diagnosed with NEC who had their Critulline levels measured on dried blood samples and compared to 1,083 normal healthy newborns (matched) indicates that dried blood samples Citrulline concentrations are NOT useful in predicting NEC.


 Acta Paediatrica
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Miami Children's Hospital Logo  

Skin-to-skin at birth. A new model of care.


"Keeping mothers and babies together in the hospital is the best way to help both bonding and breast feeding. The WHO suggests that all healthy mothers and babies practice "skin-to-skin" care for the first hour after birth". Normal babies should be placed naked (except for a diaper and hat) on the mother's chest or belly covered with a warmed blanket.


Early "skin-to-skin" care appears to enhance mother/baby bonding, breast feeding, and stabilizes the baby's blood sugar. It should be encouraged.


Journal of Human Lactation 

Genetics and life-long obesity


It appears from a meta-analysis examination of 11 genetic variants (which give rise to adult obesity ) from 3,031 children from birth to age 5 years who had a "combined obesity risk-allele score" performed,  that while genetic susceptibility to obesity does not appear to increase birth weight it does appear to predict subsequent susceptibility to weight and length increases at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years of age.


JAMA Pediatrics 

Video Feature (via YouTube)  

A Surprising Factor in Childhood Obesity: Air Pollution
A Surprising Factor in Childhood Obesity: Air Pollution

A "Play & Language for Autistic Youngsters" (PLAY) consultation program for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD's


"PLAY" intervention in combination with the usual community services (CS) available to improve parent-child interaction, child

9 On Your Side / Autism
9 On Your Side / Autism

development and Autism symptomatology in young children with ASD, appears to substantially improve (over CS only) parent-child interaction without increasing parents' stress/depression and at relatively modest cost.


Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 

Placebo effect in the treatment of acute cough in infants & toddlers.   


"Cough is one of the most common reasons why children visit a healthcare professional".


A study of a single dose of pasteurized "agave nectar" given 30 minutes prior to bedtime, versus a "placebo" (and "no treatment") which utilized (in 2 University-affiliated outpatient practices) 2-47 month old children complaining of acute (<7 days) nonspecific cough, indicates that both treatments are superior to "no treatment", but "agave nectar" is no better than a "placebo".


JAMA Pediatrics



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