April 6, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 14

Endoscopic vs. histological disease extent at presentation of pediatric bowel disease.
Almost all of 172 patients (mean age 13.5 years) with Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), unclassified inflammatory bowel disease (IBDU) underwent upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy with the location and extent of histological disease being identified utilizing the Paris (and modified) classification.

Histological disease is more extensive than endoscopic extent indicates for CD, UC, IBDU.

Short courses of dual-strain probiotics; effect on necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
Prophylactic probiotics have been given for 28 days (or until discharge) in very low birth weight (VLBW) (400-1500gm) infants to reduce the prevalence of NEC.

From a Swiss and German study, VLBW infants given prophylactic probiotics (a fixed combination of Lactobacillus Acidophilus plus Bifidobacterium infantis ) for 10-14 days after discontinuation of antibiotics (or on days 1-3 in infants without antibiotics), it appears that short courses of dual strain probiotics is effective in reducing NEC.
Double-blind cross-over study to compere pain experience during inferior alveolar nerve block administration using buffered 2% Lidocaine.
Buffered anesthetic solutions have been suggested to reduce pain in local anesthesia.

A double-blind cross-over study which compared pain on injection with 2% lidocaine, and 1:200,000 epinephrine vs. a subsequent buffered solution in 30 (6-12 year old) children indicates that buffering neither improves injections site pain or changes onset time of anesthesia.



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Diagnosing perforated appendicitis in pediatric patients.

A review of data on 97 children with significant signs of perforation indicates on multivariable analysis that an elevated temperature, CRP, the diameter of a clearly visible appendix and free fluid in the abdomen on ultrasound are specific and sensitive indices of perforation and can be used to identify "high risk" children for a perforated appendicitis.

Treatment of calcaneal apophysitis (Sever's Disease).

Calcaneal apophysitis is a common cause of heel pain in children and is probably caused by an inflammation of the growth plate (apophysitis) of the calcaneus subsequent to repetitive microtrauma from the pull of the Achilles tendon.
A prospective randomized single-blind study examining pain at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months after three modalities of a ten week treatment protocol for calcaneal apophysitis ("wait and see", "hell raise inlay" or "eccentric exercise regimens" under physiotherapeutic supervision) in 101 children (8-15 years) indicates that each results in significant reduction of heel pain, with no difference being found between individual treatment regimens.

Video Feature  
Sever's Disease
Sever's Disease
Changes in fasting lipids during puberty.

A longitudinal study correlated pubertal stage in 633 youths (8-18 years; male/female; black and Caucasian) and fasting plasma lipid levels.

"Lipid levels change markedly by pubertal age and within a given pubertal stage, plasma lipid levels tend to differ by race, sex or both". Pubertal development should be taken into account when determining screening criteria and to identify children with adverse lipid profiles.

Disability and the context of boys' first sexual intercourse.

Data from a longitudinal study of the context in which first sexual intercourse takes place in 2,737 disabled boys indicates that those with learning and emotional conditions are more likely to report very early sexual activity (and less likely to use contraception); boys with chronic illnesses are both more likely to have sex in a committed relationship and use contraception.

It appears that boys with and without disabilities (and with different disabilities) vary significantly in multiple aspects of their first sexual encounter. This data suggests that multiple approaches to sexual education is required to take this diversity into account.

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