Dec. 21, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 51

Hypothyroxinemia and risk for Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)
TTN is the most common cause of respiratory distress in the full term infant. It is probably due to failure to switch from fetal fluid production to fluid absorption in the infants' lungs, and usually resolves over 24-72 hours.

TTN is associated with Hypothyroxinemia, male sex, elective caesarian section, etc.
Pit and Fissure sealant use for primary and permanent molars in children
An update review from multiple databases of the American Dental Association's 2008 recommendations on the use of no treatment/different types pit-and-fissure sealants and fluoride varnishes to prevent caries of occlusive surfaces indicates that sealants are most effective in preventing, arresting and minimizing progression of pit-and-fissure occlusive caries in primary and permanent molars of children.

Pediatric Dentistry

Pit & Fissures
Pit & Fissures
Risk of autism (ASD) in younger siblings of affected children
After adjusting for potential confounding factors it appears that younger siblings of an older child with ASD are at approximately 11 fold greater risk for ASD; the risk being higher for a younger brother (independent of sex of older sibling) and risk is unaffected by race, ethnicity, sex and gestational age at birth.
Did You Know? 
Nicklaus Children's Launches State-of-the-Art Mobile Dental Unit to Provide Pediatric Dental Care in Underserved Communities

This mobile dental unit is equipped with two dental operatory suites as well as state-of-the-art telehealth equipment that enables communication between the unit-based providers and dental colleagues at Nicklaus Children's Hospital to support patient care.

Read More>>
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Health status among adults born with an oral cleft

"Cleft lip and cleft palate are facial or oral malformations that occur very early in pregnancy". As the lip and the palate develop separately a baby may have one or the other, on one or both sides of the mouth, or both together. Boys have more cleft lips (with or without cleft palate) while girls have twice as many cleft palates (without a cleft lip). The cause is usually unknown however both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated.

From a study of 2,337 infants born with an oral cleft which examined  a variety of physical, neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes at 18-43 years it appears that:
  1. Isolated cleft lip only, carries no increased risk for morbidity or mortality
  2. Isolated cleft palate has an associated increased mortality, risk of intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental abnormalities
  3. Isolated cleft lip and palate carries an increased risk for intellectual disability and cerebral palsy
Kawasaki Disease (KD) at 50 years
KD is the most recognized vasculitis of childhood, commonly affecting children between 6 months and 5 years of age; boys being at greater risk. The cause is unknown but the inflammatory processes are probably the "final pathway" of many infectious or environmental factors, in genetically predisposed children.

KD has 6 diagnostic criteria (which usually resolve in 12 days): 
  1. Fever for >5 days
  2. Conjunctivitis
  3. Inflammation of blood vessels in the mouth and throat (red "strawberry" tongue, cracked lips or red throat)
  4. Redness of palms of hands and soles of feet, often with swelling and peeling of the skin)
  5. Rash anywhere on the body
  6. Lymphadenopathy in the neck
An EKG may be helpful in diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery dilatation, an important potential marker for long term damage. Early diagnosis and treatment with steroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin improves outcomes.
Video Feature
Signs & Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease
Signs & Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) presenting as anorexia nervosa

MNGIE is a rare multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial function which predominantly presents in childhood (approximately 12 years of age) with symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmobility (feeling full after small meals, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) extreme weight loss and ptosis, peripheral neuropathy and diffuse leukoenchelopathy on brain imaging. Early diagnosis is critical (though often delayed). Treatment is symptomatic and requires a multidisciplinary team.

Early results of drilling and/or microfracture for Grade IV Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) of the elbow
OCD is a joint condition frequently affecting boys aged 9-18 years in which both bone and its adjacent cartilage loses its blood supply. Elbows and knees are most frequently involved. The cause is unknown and symptoms include joint pain, and stiffness and/or locking of the joint. Surgical treatment is usually recommended and it appears that loose body removal and drilling/microfracture results in better return to sports 2 years later, compared to other surgical techniques.
Food systems and diets: Facing the challenges of the 21st century
2016 | London, U.K.
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