Feb. 17, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 7

Exhale breath temperature (EBT) measurements and asthma control in children treated with inhaled corticosteroids
Exhaled breath temperature reflects the degree of eosinophilic-neutrophilic inflammation of the airways in asthmatic children. A new cheap and easy to use EBT monitor now allows for repetitive exhalation measurements.

A prospective study of 134 children (aged 5-16 years) attending a pediatric respiratory clinic who had intermittent EBTs performed which were related to expired nitric oxide, lung function testing, level of current treatment and asthma control, indicates that EBT measurements are not helpful in assessing airway lability, asthma control or to adjust anti-inflammatory therapy.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and sex among young me who have sex with men (YMSM)
A study of 528 urban YMSM which investigated the relationship between any IPV/victimization and perpetration, with condomless sex, indicates that both IPV perpetration and victimization is associated with condomless sex. IPV prevention and intervention programs are needed.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants: the significance of low bacterial counts
"In national guidelines for urinary tract infection in children different cut-off levels for defining bacteriuria are used".

A population-based retrospective study of 430 infants < 1 year with symptomatic UTI diagnosed by suprapubic aspiration who underwent voiding cystourethrography and Tc-DMSA (to evaluate renal structure, scarring and pyelonephritis) to assess whether there is a relationship between bacterial count, recurrent UTI, frequency of vesico ureteral reflux (VUR) and kidney damage, indicates that 19% of infants have bacterial counts < 100,000 colony-forming-units-CFU/ml, with a similar frequency of VUR, kidney damage and recurrent UTI to those with counts greater than >100,000 CFU.

UTI with low a bacterial count is common and is important as it may be associated with VUR and renal damage.

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Synbiotics for the prevention and treatment of Atopic dermatitis (AD)

"Synbiotics refer to nutritional supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics (non-digestible fiber compounds) in a form of synergism."

It appears that AD may be associated with an altered gut microbial environment that enhances an immune system to more likely be susceptible to allergic disease.

A study of multiple databases investigated the association between symbiotic use in the prevention and treatment of AD. It appears, particularly for children > 1 year of age, that synbiotics (especially those that contain mixed strains of bacteria) potentially reduce risk and enhance treatment of AD.

Does breast milk influence the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)?

An ongoing multicenter cohort study of data from 233 low birth weight infants (born >32 weeks gestation) who exclusively received breast milk (vs. those receiving formula feed), indicates:

While breast fed babies gain less weight, there is a decreased risk of developing BPD, ROP and NEC (after controlling for other risk factors).

Video Feature
Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate Partner Violence
Preterm toddlers' inhibitory control abilities predict academic achievement at 8 years of age

A study utilized 558 infants (26-41 weeks gestation) which evaluated inhibitory control abilities (the ability of an individual to override their natural, habitual or dominant behavior responses-"inhibitory control") at age 20 months, and related them to attention and academic ability at 8 years of age indicates that the lower the preterm birth gestational age, the greater the negative effect on inhibitory control and this predicts a poorer attention span and lower academic achievement at 8 years of age. Improving toddler inhibitory control may ameliorate the negative impact.

Procalcitonin (PCT assay) to predict serious bacterial infection (SBI) and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in young febrile infants
A prospective cohort study of 2,047 infants 7-91 days old admitted for fever who underwent PCT assay, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, white blood count (WBC) and
absolute neutrophil count (ANC) for detecting SBI and IBI, indicates that PCT assay and CRP levels are equally effective in diagnosing SBI, however PCT assay is superior for diagnosing IBI.

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