Jan. 20, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 3

Effects of placental transfusion on neonatal and 18 months motor outcomes in preterm infants
A randomized controlled trial examined the effects on intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), late onset sepsis (LOS), and 18 month motor outcomes in matched weight/gestational age preterm infants following either delayed cord clamping (DCC - 32 seconds) vs. immediate cord clamping (ICC - 6.6 seconds).

Preterm infants managed with DCC show improved motor function at 18-22 months corrected age; compared to ICC, IVH and LOS rates are unchanged.

Breast feeding, pacifier (dummy) use and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
A literature review of 35 relevant studies on breast feeding and SIDS, 27 on pacifier use and SIDS, and 59 on pacifier vs. breast feeding indicates that both breast feeding and pacifier use reduces the risk of SIDS (pacifier use may not be as detrimental to breast feeding as previously believed).

Acta Paediatrica

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Assessment of variation in care and outcomes for pediatric appendicitis at Children's (CH) and non-Children's hospitals (NCH)
From a database of 11,216 children with perforated appendicitis where operative approach (open vs. laparoscopic) central line (CL)/total parenteral nutrition (PN) use, length of stay and total costs were compared between CH's and NCH's, it appears that CH's more often perform laparoscopic surgery, utilize CL/PN and have a lower complication rate (with however higher costs).



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Risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children after general elective pediatric/orthopedic surgery

In 1845 Virchow postulated that 3 factors were important in the development of thrombosis: (1) Impairment of blood flow (stasis) (2) vascular injury and (3) alterations of the blood (hypercoagulability). These factors remain unchanged and have a role in pediatric thromboembolism.

A study analyzing data from all children (>18 years) undergoing general surgery compared to a population cohort indicates that overall risk of VTE following surgery is 9 times higher compared to the general population (absolute risk however is small). Following orthopedic surgery the incidence of VTE is 0.0515% mostly related to the underlying diagnosis.

Time-varying risk factors and sexual aggression (SA) perpetration in male college students
From a longitudinal study of each of the four years in college in 795 male students surveyed, it appears that boys who go to College with a history of SA but decrease their perpetration over time show decreased compulsivity, impulsivity, hostile attitudes toward women and rape among other factors. (Men who increase their levels of SA over time show increases in their associated risk factors).

"...risk factors for SA are not static and interventions designed to alter them may lead to changes in SA risk".

Video Feature
Sexual Aggression
Sexual Aggression
Functional outcomes after treatment of scaphoid fractures in children/adolescents

Fracture of the carpal scaphoid bone represents 0.34% of all fractures in children. The mechanism of injury is usually a fall in the outstretched hand and in most children the fracture is un-displaced and in the distal 1/3 of the bone. Little appears to be known about the longer-term functional outcome following treatment.
Scaphoid Fractures
Scaphoid Fractures

It appears from study of 63 patients (aged 8-18 years) with scaphoid fractures followed for 6.3 years (median) after treatment that those patients whose fractures were acute all achieve union and go on to successful bony healing with normal functional status, independent to whether treated by cast or surgery (patients treated for non-unions/osteonecrosis have significantly decreased wrist function).

Assessment of post-operative outcomes of hypospadias repair by questionnaire
A validated questionnaire was used to assess post-operative function, cosmetic and psychosocial outcomes (mean follow-up time 59 months) following hypospadias repair in 172 patients.

Most patients following hypospadias repair generally report good functional cosmetic and psychosocial outcomes.

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