Jan. 6, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 1

Associations between active commuting to school (walking and cycling - ACS) vs. passive commuting on body fat and mental well-being.
From a study of 12,151 girls and 9,445 boys from grades 3 to grade 12 in which commuting mode to school was compared to body mass index, percentage body fat (PBF), waist circumference (WC) and depressive symptoms (assessed by Children's Depression Inventory), it appears that ACS correlates with better physical and mental well-being. As obesity among children in the USA is a major public health issue parents and School Boards need to reassess transport priorities for school going children (Ed.)

Journal of Adolescent Health

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Heterogeneity of lower airway inflammation in children with severe-persistent asthma
A retrospective review of the inflammatory profile patterns in bronchoalveolar fluid ( which were classified as neutrophilic, eosinophilic, mixed, or pauci-granulocytic) and pre-bronchoscopy serum IgE levels from 32 children with severe persistent asthma indicates that 37.5% have a neutrophilic, 28.1% an eosinophilic, 21.9% a mixed and 11.1% a pauci-granulocytic pattern, respectively. Serum IgE levels correlate with an eosinophilic inflammatory pattern.

Children with severe persistent asthma show a heterogeneic inflammatory pattern. Further studies will clarify whether different patterns are associated with a specific etiology and whether individualized therapies will result.
Impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on preterm lung disease
A retrospective short-term pulmonary study of the impact of IUGR on respiratory outcomes in 115 infants <32 weeks (birth weight < 10th percentile - SGA) indicates that 45% develop chronic lung disease, 13.7% require home oxygen and 16% die; all results being significantly worse than a comparable non-IUGR group.

"IUGR is a major risk factor for adverse short-term pulmonary outcomes".

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Breast feeding attitudes: association between maternal and paternal attitudes and breast feeding intent.
Breast feeding rates in the USA continue to be below those recommended by both medical and public health professionals.

A study of 112 pregnant low-income women and their male partners' attitudes towards breast feeding indicates that a mother's and father's Attitude Scale score are highly correlated and the higher scores of both correlate significantly with the intention to breast feed.

Enhancing positive attitudes to breast feeding by mother and her male partner has significant potential in achieving improved breast feeding rates.

Video Feature
Breast Feeding
Breast Feeding
Intrapleural alteplase vs. saline irrigation to decrease parapneumonic effusion volume in children
A study of 17 children (median age 3.5 years) in a prospective, double-blinded randomized crossover trial was undertaken to determine the effect of intrapleural fibrinolysis with alteplase vs. normal saline irrigation (twice daily on alternate days) on thoracostomy tube output and plural effusion volume (measured by low dose chest computed tomography - CT).

Early (days 1 and 3) intrapleural fibrinolysis safely increases plural drainage and decreases intrapleural effusion volumes.

Children with oral clefts and school achievement
From a longitudinal cohort study of academic achievement from a population-based sample of 586 children with oral clefts (and 1,873 unaffected class mates) it appears that children with cleft palate only (vs other cleft types) are at greater risk for persistent low achievement trajectories, when adjusted for socio-economic differences. Other predictors associated with low school achievement include an adolescent mother, low maternal education and less frequent use of prenatal care.
Short and long-term clinical results of surgical correction of thumb-in-palm deformity in patients with cerebral palsy
A retrospective short (1 year) and long-term (5 years) review of 39 patients with cerebral palsy and their charts who underwent surgery for correction of thumb-in-palm deformity indicates that 87% of the children have short-term successful outcomes, which is maintained in the majority of patients over 5 years. While many are satisfied with early surgical results, re-operation is common.

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