Miami, FL
June 12, 2019
Volume X | Issue No. 24
Predictors of violent victimization (to injure, act cruelly or unjustly) at age 17 years
A longitudinal sample of 1,138 Swiss first graders had social behavioral tendencies (internalizing problems, externalizing behavior, prosocial behavior, negative peer relations, competent problem solving, dominance and sensation seeking) measured at 7 years and violent victimization noted at 17 years of age.
For boys sensation seeking, externalizing behavior, high pro-sociality, externalizing behavior, high pro-sociality and negative peer relations at age 7 years increased later victimization. For girls dominance and external behaviors are predictive of later poor treatment of peers. Early adolescent (11-15 years) victimization risk carries forward into later adolescence.
Journal of Pediatrics 
Environmental and birth characteristics of short stature in early childhood 
A study of a large (10,127) nationally representative sampling of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten 2011 cohort evaluated factors associated with short stature (height <3rd percentile) at kindergarten through 2nd grade.
Predictors of short stature in early school age include preterm/low birth weight, female sex and low parental income. Socioeconomic disparities and race/ethnicity also play a role.
Acta Paediatrica  
See related video HERE.
Long-term quality of life outcomes in children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair 
A chart and phone survey of guardians of 46 CDH children to assess outcomes following CDH repair 5.8 years (mean) previously, indicates that overall quality of life is good, symptom burden low, with reassuring gastrointestinal function. Older aged children may require schooling interventions. Site of defect, patch versus primary repair, prenatal diagnosis, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or recurrence do not appear to materially affect subsequent quality of life outcomes.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery  
See related video HERE.
Childhood Obesity Facts 
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Acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE)/erythema  
AISE is an acute (3-5 days duration), idiopathic (possible etiology - hypersensitivity reaction), self-limiting condition without sequelae, found mostly in children (average age 6.2 years) characterized by marked edema and erythema of the skin and Dartos fascia of the scrotum (the thin layer of non-striped muscle fiber that form part of the subcutaneous tissue of the scrotum and which with the cremaster muscle elevate the testes). 90% of cases are unilateral. Most common presenting clinical features include; scrotal, perineal and inguinal swelling, erythema and scrotal discomfort. Treatment is conservative with recurrences not uncommon. 
An interesting case presentation and a rare cause of acute scrota erythema in a 9 year old boy outlines many of the features found in AISE. Recognizing this uncommon condition will avoid unnecessary surgical exploration.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Polyphenol-rich cranberry extract and virulence of Streptococcus mutans (S. Mutans) - Candida albicans (C. albicans) biofilms in the pathogenesis of early childhood caries
Polyphenols are a category of micronutrient chemicals (>500) that naturally occur in plants, contain a large amount of antioxidants and which are thought to have some beneficial effect on health. Cranberry juice polyphenols (the active component of which are the proanthocyanidins) are thought to be responsible for their possible beneficial effect.
A laboratory study which utilized saliva coated S-HA disks compared cranberry extract treated (vs. control) biofilms for bacterial metabolic activity, microbial biovolumes and colony forming unit (CFU) counts.
Cranberry extract (on biofilms) significantly reduces acidity, metabolic activity, biovolumes and CFUs of S. mutans and C. albicans in an in-vitro model.
Video Feature
Pediatrics - Stature Abnormalities: By Kyle McNerney M.D.
Pediatrics - Stature Abnormalities
Kyle McNerney, MD
Probiotic prophylaxis in children with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) 
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) continues to support its 2011 statement that in the prevention of recurrent UTIs, "physicians are urged to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics". Alternatives suggested have included circumcision (in boys), good hygiene (frequent diaper changes/wiping from front to back after a bowel movement), drinking cranberry juice, taking showers, etc.).
A study which compared the effect of a prophylactic probiotic mixture (to a placebo) to prevent a secondary UTI in 181 children (after first episode of UTI) and who were followed for 18 months, indicates that while girls continue to have a higher rate of UTI recurrence, composite cure over an 18 month period was observed in 96.7% of children who received the probiotic mixture (vs. 83.3% who did not).
Probiotics appear to be of value in preventing recurrent UTIs in young children (further studies are needed to examine best probiotic strain, optimum dosing and duration of therapy).  
Journal of Pediatric of Infectious Diseases Society 
See related video HERE.
Maternal nut intake during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development
"Nuts are composed of a matrix of nutrients containing a substantial amount of plant protein, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids." For older adults a diet high in nuts has been shown to decrease cognitive decline.  
A study of 2,208 mother/child pairs examined the association between maternal nut intake during pregnancy (first and third trimesters) and neuropsychological outcomes at birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years of age.
"Attention is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and of cognitive functions such as perception, memory, language, etc." The Attention Network Test (ANT) measures different aspects of this complex process.
Children of mothers who consume the largest amounts of nuts during the first trimester of pregnancy have significantly improved ANT scores with long-term neurocognitive benefits (third trimester nut intake shows a weaker association).
See related video HERE.
How to Provide Child CPR
How to Provide Child CPR
This CPR video demonstrated by Linda Nylander-Housholder, APRN. shows step by step how to perform CPR on a child
(1 year old to puberty). If the child is not breathing and unresponsive, performing CPR can keep him/her alive until Emergency Medical Services (911) arrives. This Nicklaus Children's Hospital video follows current CPR guidelines from the American Heart Association.
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