June 22, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 25

Modifiable neighborhood features associated with adolescent homicide
Severe violent injury and death is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adolescents. A population-based, case-control study in Philadelphia identified 143 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 20 years (and matched controls) who died by homicide, examining environmental data (60 elements) that were present in their immediate surroundings.

"The presence of street lighting, illuminated walk/don't walk signs, painted marked crosswalks, public transportation, parks and maintained vacant lots are all significantly associated with decreased odds of homicide". Public health requires these issues to be addressed.

Impact of tobacco controlled policies (taxes and smoke-free legislation) on adolescent smoking
A study of data on 717,543 adolescents from 43 States in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicates that between 1999 and 2013 adolescent smoking decreased from 35.3% to 13.9%, and 95% of states increased cigarette taxes by an average of 257%. Among 14-15 year olds, every one dollar increase in cigarette tax and the enactment of 100% smoke free restaurant legislation appears to be associated with an approximately 1% (respectively) reduction in smoking as well as a decrease in smoking frequency.

Bed-sharing and breast feeding
Maternal bed-sharing with normal infants is controversial; often beginning at birth, it may continue into early childhood and appears not to be related to social class. It does however appear to be strongly (& positively) related to breast feeding duration. Observational studies also suggest an association between bed-sharing in the first three months of life and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (though perhaps more so when an infant co-sleeps with a mother on a sofa). In 2005 The American Academy of Pediatrics in its guideline recommendations to prevent SIDS stated that SIDS is higher when bed-sharing occurs in infants <11 weeks of age (independent of other risk factors) and when the bed is shared for more than one hour each night.

Room sharing with an infant sleeping in a crib/bassinet or cradle close to the mother is recommended.

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Young fussy eaters and their parents!

"Child fussy eating, or consistent rejection of a particular food item" was examined in a prospective cohort study of 4,746, 4 year old children which assessed the relationship between fussy eating and parental symptoms of anxiety and

Maternal anxiety and both parent depression during pregnancy and the following three preschool years, appear highly associated with early childhood eating fussiness.

Prevalence and natural history of celiac disease (CD) in at-risk children

A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and clinical presentations of CD. A cohort of 262 healthy newborns whose umbilical cord blood was HLA-DQ2 positive were serologically tested for serum antiglutaminase and endomyasial antibodies between 2 and 3 years of age. Children with high autoantibody titers underwent intestinal biopsy.

CD was diagnosed 4.1% - in the whole cohort 60% had gastrointestinal symptoms, 7% poor weight gain and 33% were asymptomatic. 42.3% with antibodies spontaneously reverted to negative.

Prevalence of CD in young children should be based on intestinal damage.

Video Feature 
Anti-Smoking Policies Successfully Deter New Smokers
Anti-Smoking Policies Successfully Deter New Smokers
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and fetal and preterm infant development
IGF1 (also called somatomedin C) is a hormone consisting of 70 amino acids similar in molecular structure to insulin. Its primary and specific receptor is present on many cell types and tissues and is a significant mediator of the effects of growth hormone.
After preterm birth, post natal growth does not match normal intrauterine growth and IGF1 levels are frequently very low. The potential clinical importance of this and the question of replacement is explored.

Infant colic - What works?
Searches of a number of databases examined pooled data associating mother and their colicky infant's ( <6 months of age) and a variety of prescription and non-prescription interventions to assess efficacy.

Of 17 articles that met inclusion criteria, 6 examined probiotic treatment and 3 studies evaluated preparations containing fennel.

Probiotics (particularly L. reuteri) and preparations containing fennel oil appear to be effective in reducing colic. The evidence for maternal dietary manipulation, lactase, sucrose, glucose and simethicone is weak.

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Nicklaus Children's Hospital, part of Miami Children's Health System 
Nicklaus Children's Hospital, part of Miami Children's Health System
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