March 22, 2017
Volume VIII |  Issue No. 12

Associations between autoimmune disease and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A large cohort of all singletons born from 1990 to 2007 in Denmark identified and followed 23,645 children diagnosed with ADHD.

A maternal history of autoimmune disease; a family history of thyrotoxicosis, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis all appear to increase the risk of ADHD in offspring.
Journal of the American Academy of Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry
Adverse health effects in children from ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers
Non-alcohol based hand sanitizers which use a chemical family called quaternary ammonium compounds have not been recommended by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as their efficacy has not been adequately documented clinically.

Overall, oral ingestion of all hand sanitizers occurs predominantly in children 0-5 years of age.

Older children (aged 6-12 years) who appear to intentionally ingest alcohol-based hand sanitizers (60-95% ethanol or hydropropyl alcohol by volume) perhaps as a product of abuse; have worse outcomes (though major life-threatening episodes are rare).

I ncreased awareness of the danger associated with the ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers and the use of proper safety precautions to protect children are essential for parents, teachers and health-care providers.

Improper Use of Hand Sanitizer
Risk factor for diagnostic delay in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in children and adolescents
PNES' are one type of somatic symptom disorder that presents as paroxysmal episodes (or attacks) "that resemble and are often misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures". PNES's are psychological/psychiatric in origin and are usually precipitated by stress or emotions. They are often referred to epileptic centers because of treatment refractoriness. EEGs are normal.

From a study of 53 Children with PNES (mean age 12.8 years) (60.4% girls), diagnosed by video electro-encephalography who underwent neurological and psychiatric interviews, it appears that the time from onset to referral is delayed (17.76 months); the later referral group has a history of psychological abuse and the earlier the onset, the later the diagnosis is made.

PNES represents a diagnostic challenge.

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Femoral neck stress fractures in young children (<10 years of age)

"Normally bone is able to repair itself." With excess weight bearing activity (e.g. long distance running), bone absorption exceeds bone repair and a stress fracture may result.

A retrospective review of the records of six healthy children (mean age 6.6 years) treated for idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture (all presenting with a long-standing limp) indicates:
  1. A compression-type mechanism.
  2. Four of six patients treated with six-eight weeks of non-weight bearing therapy, followed by graduated partial weight bearing therapy, completely healed.
  3. Weight bearing restrictions are difficult for children, so hip spica casting may be required.
Risk and consequences of adolescent cannabis use  

Animal literature indicates that in adolescents, cannabis use catalyzes molecular processes that lead to persistent functional deficits in adulthood. A study investigated through a literature search of multiple databases revealed neuropsychiatric adult outcomes that are most likely to occur following adolescent cannabis use.

Data on early, frequent and heavy adolescent-onset exposure to cannabinoids finds a strong association (but not conclusive evidence!) with persistent functional deficits in adulthood, particularly regarding cognitive and psychiatric outcomes.

Video Feature
Fructose in breast milk and infant body composition at 6 months of age

A study of 25 mother-infant dyads, with infants exclusively breast fed for 6 months, measured and examined associations between breast milk fructose, glucose and lactose and glucose oxidase, and body composition.

An increase in breast milk fructose appears to be the only sugar in breast milk significantly associated with a higher body weight, lean and fat mass and bone mineral content at 6 months of age.

Prebiotic supplementation and appetite control in overweight/obese children
The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) defines probiotics as "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host".

Abnormalities in the microbiome of the gut have suggested a link to many diseases of the intestinal tract as well systemic diseases such as obesity and Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and many others.

A prebiotic is a non-digestible, carbohydrate (oligosaccharides) that acts as food for the probiotics and bacteria in the gut and that selectively stimulate and
enhance the growth/activity of beneficial gut microbiota. In adults, they appear to beneficially influence energy homeostasis, satiety regulation (appetite regulation) and body weight gain. Studies in children are limited.

A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial of 42 obese (BMI >85th percentile) boys and girls (aged 7-12 years) who randomly received 8g oligofractose-enriched inulin/day or a placebo for 16 weeks indicates that prebiotic intake results in significantly higher feelings of fullness, and less food consumption (particularly in the older age group).

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Marcia Diaz De Villegas Named a South Florida Business Journal Power Leader

The nominations recognize top marketing executives who have led organizations through ever changing media convergence and executed marketing campaigns that are supported by all media platforms.
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