March 23, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 12

Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age - what follows?
Data from a nested case-control study of 250 children with and without specific language impairments (SLI - measuring 23 language parameters) from age 0-4 years, was utilized to express a predictive adequacy of language at 4-11 years of age.

Failure to meet language milestones from the age of 24 months is predictive of future specific language impairments.

Acta Paediatrica

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Marital hostility, hostile parenting and child aggression from toddler to school age
It appears that "spillover" of marital conflict (financial strain, parent antisocial traits and marital hostility) - to parenting hostility - to child aggression from toddler to age 6 years is associated with more parental hostility in mothers and fathers at 27 months, and that fathers hostility is associated with child aggression at age 4.5 years. (Birth mother antisocial traits are unassociated with child aggression).

Improving outcomes in pilonidal sinus (PNS) disease
"A pilonidal cyst and sinus can be one of several openings in the skin between the buttocks". Most pilonidal cysts/sinuses occur after puberty and become infected with abscess formation; etiology is unknown. Treatment, depending on whether diagnosed early or late may be conservative (broadspectrum antibiotics), drainage and/or surgical excision. Post-operative recurrence is common (20%)

A single-center retrospective review of the surgical technique which involved excision of the pilonidal sinus and followed for 13 months indicates a high recurrence rate, wound dehiscence and wound infections in children.



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Presenting patterns of pediatric celiac disease (CD)

CD is an autoimmune disease, typically becoming apparent 3-5 months after first consuming gluten-containing foods. Infants frequently present with failure to gain weight, irritability, distended abdomens, etc. Older children may present differently.

A chart review of 165 children with newly diagnosed CD (mean age 10.7 years) indicates that presenting features include:

1     Abdominal pain (52.7%).
2     Constipation (38.9%).
3     Diarrhea (31.1%).
4     Family history of first-degree relative (28.1%).
5     Diabetes mellitus (22.2%).
6     Failure to thrive (21.8%).
7     Reflux (15.1%).
8     Vomiting (14.5%).
9     Fatigue (9.0%).
10    Short stature (5.4%).

Video Feature  
Teens and Peer Influence
Teens and Peer Influence
Peer influence in sexual situations
"One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior - however not all youths are equally susceptible..."

It appears from a study of 300 early adolescents (mean age 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed a pretest assessment and subsequent simulated internet chat room experimental procedure, where they believed that they were communicating with peers in sexual scenarios, that 78% provide more "risky responses" than those in pretest, and that the best predictor of sexual risk behavior is gender, with boys (particularly older African-American) being most susceptible to peer pressure.
Does topical anesthetic reduce pain during intraosseous pin removal in children?

"In pediatric orthopedics temporary fixation is often achieved using smooth percutaneous pins (PP)". As pin removal is usually painful without analgesia or anesthetic and is thought to originate in the skin the use of topical lidocaine appeared worthy of investigation.

A triple-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing topical liposomal lidocaine to a placebo during PP removal in 296 children indicates that applying topical liposomal lidocaine is NOT effective to reduce pain in the procedure. An appropriate safe and fast acting agent is still to be found.
Correlation between white matter lesions and IQ in patients with Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection (CCI)

A small study of 9 children diagnosed with CCI investigated the relationship between white matter lesions, intellectual quotient (IQ) and other neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

MRI examinations of CCI patients identifies increases in white matter lesion volume which is associated with a lower IQ (but not associated with an increased likelihood of autism).
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