March 30, 2016
Volume VII | Issue No. 13

Effect of a backboard on chest compression depths during cardiac arrest in the Emergency Department (ED)
From a high-fidelity mannequin chest compression study which compared the depths of chest compressions achieved by health care trainees, with cardiac resuscitation on a standard ED stretcher to one with a backboard present, it appears that in adults (and perhaps older adolescents) the addition of a back board does not significantly improve chest compression in simulated cardiac arrest (most rescuers do not achieve the 50mm depth recommended by the America Heart Association).
Determining peripheral skin temperature; subjective vs. objective measurements
The accuracy of current physical examination techniques to measure peripheral skin temperature was compared to a hand-held infrared device in a pilot study of 12 children and 231 extremity examinations.

A hand-held infrared device appears to provide more accurately an objective measurement of peripheral skin temperature.
Association of outdoor play and screen time with nocturnal sleep duration/pattern
Data on children's sleep, outdoor playtime and screen time was examined from 369 mother-child dyads for 2, 3.5 and 5 year old children from a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

Each additional hour of screen time is associated with 3 minutes shorter sleep, 1.6 minutes longer sleep latency, 4 minutes later bedtime and less likely sleeping more than 10hours/night.

Reducing screen time and increasing outdoor play times may be of value in enhancing young children's sleep (just like your grandmother/abuela told you! Ed.).

Acta Paediatrica

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-This is a "Must Have" (Ed.) 

Complementary serological testing requirements after initiation of a gluten-free diet in patients with Celiac Disease (CD)

119 newly diagnosed CD children had hemoglobin, ferritin, folate, Vitamin B12, calcium, Vitamin D, free thyroxin and TSH measured after initiation of a gluten-free diet to assess nutritional deficiencies.

At follow-up few (2%-8%) gluten-free diet treated children with CD develop nutritional deficiencies, though Vitamin D deficiency may be present in 25%.
Video Feature  
Celiac Disease
Effect of a
Gluten-Free Diet on Liver Function Tests
Negative Celiac Blood Tests But Feel Better on a Gluten-Free Diet?
Negative Celiac Blood Tests But Feel Better on a Gluten-Free Diet?
Pediatric abdominal injury patterns caused by "falls". Non-accidental (NAT) or accidental trauma?
"Falling from a low height is the most common history given by care givers of pediatric NAT victims evaluated for blunt abdominal trauma (BAT)".

Of 65 NAT's who had 115 "falls" (<5 years of age), NAT victims "Injury Severity Scores" (ISS) (mortality/morbidity/hospitalization time) are higher, with more severe head, hollow viscus and pancreatic injuries. "Fall" casualties are more likely to have solid organ damage.
C-reactive protein (CRP) as a guide for transitioning to oral antibiotics in joint infections

A retrospective review of 37 children (mean age 8.37 years) admitted and treated for acute bacterial osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis treated first with intravenous (IV) followed by oral antibiotics with laboratory data, inpatient progress and outpatient follow-up indicates that 92% experience a 50% decrease in CPR level over four days, and of these only 3% develop complications during follow-up.

It appears that clinical improvement and a 50% reduction in CRP level can be used to transition IV to oral treatment of osteoarticular infections.

Influence of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) on gut microbiota in the first month of life

It appears from a study of 84 infant-mother dyads studied at 7 and 30 days postnatally (which examined neonatal fecal samples) that at post-natal day 7 Bifidobacteria counts are significantly lower in IAP infants (though by day 30 no differences in Bifidobacteria, lactobacillus and B.fragilis counts are found) which is further affected by formula feeding. Whether these results have long-term consequences is unknown at present.
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