Miami, FL
Sept. 19, 2018
     
Volume IX | Issue No. 38
Trajectory of sexual orientation from adolescence to young adulthood 
From a community-based urban sample of 2,450 girls recruited at ages 5-8 years and repeatedly assessed between 14 and 22 years for sexual attraction, sexual partnering, romantic partnering and sexual orientation identity, it appears that sexual minority trajectories (which include three groupings; primarily opposite-sex oriented - 29%, primarily same-sex oriented - 4% and bisexually oriented - 10%) remain relatively stable from adolescence to young adulthood.

 
See related video HERE & HERE. 
Guidelines to management of common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID's) 
" Regurgitation, infantile colic and functional constipation are common functional gastrointestinal disorders during infancy." A review of the literature and peer-reviewed expert recommendations on management suggest that
first line management should focus on parental education, reassurance and nutritional advice (continuing breast feeding). Drug treatment is rarely required.
 
One year outcomes of healthy late preterm infants
Using a database of hospital records of Spanish newborns (2,940 healthy late-preterm infants and 18,197 healthy term-born) between 2012-2013, an analysis compared length of hospital stay, readmissions at 30 days and 1 year, and risk of death.
 
Healthy late-preterm infants stay significantly longer in hospital compared to healthy term-babies (6.0 days vs. 2.8 days), are more frequently readmitted at 30 days and 1 year and are at significantly greater risk of death at 1 year of age.
 
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Childhood Obesity Facts 
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Pediatric orthopedic trauma associated with Snowmobile, All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and Dirtbike accidents 

Off-road vehicles contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. A study retrospectively reviewed 750 children's orthopedic and associated injuries for Snowmobile, ATV and motorized Dirtbike vehicles who presented to a single Emergency Department (ED) between 1996 and 2015.
 
Results indicate:
  1. 47% of accidents relate to Dirtbikes, 41% are ATV-related and 11% occur from snowmobiles - mostly axial and appendicular fractures.
  2. Snowmobiles; mean age: 13.2 years (and Dirtbikes; mean age: 13.5 years) are more often associated with a higher rate of fractures (spine and femur).
  3. ATV's (younger patients: 11.8 years) have higher rates of upper extremity, hand, scapular and open fractures plus head trauma.
Off-road vehicular accidents cause significant injuries. Prevention should focus on protective gear, safe-areas for off-road use and strict minimum age requirements.
 
Video Feature
What Is A Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder?
What Is A Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder?
Marijuana - availability, product variety, school distance and adolescent use

It appears that over the past recent years Marijuana use in the USA among adolescents has surpassed the proportion who smoke cigarettes, increasing with the number of states passing medical marijuana laws.

A study of marijuana use among adolescents aimed at ascertaining whether the availability, price and product variety of medical marijuana in school neighborhoods is associated with present adolescent use and susceptibility to use in the future.

There appears to be no evidence supporting the view that distance from school to medical marijuana dispensary, weighted count of medical marijuana dispensaries within a 3-mile band of school, the product price or variety of product available, is associated with present or future marijuana use susceptibility in adolescents.

Knowledge gaps about serogroup B meningococcal disease (MenB) and MenB vaccines 

Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a gram negative diplococcal bacterium. About 10% of adults carry the bacterium in their nasopharynx and the organism is spread through saliva and respiratory secretions during coughing, sneezing, kissing, chewing on toys and sharing utensils. Among the 13 capsular strains (which vary around the world) types are classified according to the antigenic structure of their polysaccharide capsule. In the USA serogroup B is the most frequent cause of disease and mortality.
 
A study of a nationally represented sample of pediatricians assessed (1). practices regarding MenB vaccine delivery, (2) factors influencing vaccine recommendations, (3) factors associated with discussing MenB vaccine.
 
Results indicate: 
  1. Only 51% of pediatricians always or often discuss MenB vaccine.
  2. Of those who don't (or rarely) discuss the vaccine only 11% recommend it.
  3. 73% of pediatricians currently administer MenB vaccine.
  4. MenB outbreaks, disease incidence and effectiveness/safety/duration of protection knowledge increase the likelihood of vaccine recommendation.
MenB vaccination has been recommended by the Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices of the CDC for persons > 10 years of age, who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease, including those who have persistent complement component deficiencies etc etc and for use during serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreaks. Adolescents and young adults 16-23 years may also be vaccinated to provide short-term protection.  
 
Risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in infants during their first months in daycare
 
A prospective study of 259 Danish infants aged 8-14 months examined risk factors associated with repeated respiratory infections, diarrhea and day care absences during their first months in daycare.
 
Over a (mean) 5.6 month period, 36%, 20%, and 60% of infants have at least one URTI, lower respiratory tract infection or diarrheal episode respectively. Decreased risk is associated with no previous respiratory infections, having a pet, being cared by registered child minders, normal birth weight and age at enrollment.
 
Childhood infection risk in daycare centers is associated with factors relating to the child and the environment.
 
Meet Juan Carlos Muniz, MD - The Heart Program at Nicklaus Children's Hospital
Meet Juan Carlos Muniz, MD - The Heart Program at Nicklaus Children's Hospital
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