fought together to defeat the
Invincible Spanish Armada
Dutch United Netherlands
became world powers.
Tensions between them increased, breaking out into the
First Anglo-Dutch War
, 1652 to 1654.
Admiral William Penn
helped lead the
to victory over the
had previously fought in the
English Civil War,
King Charles I.
English Commonwealth, Oliver Cromwell
to the Caribbean, where he captured
from the Spanish in 1655.
to his father's throne in 1660, ending the
knighted him, giving the rank of
Lord High Admiral.
Admiral Sir William Penn
helped defeat the
navy in the
Second Anglo-Dutch War,
1665-67, resulting in Britain capturing
and renaming it
had high hopes for his son, also named
who functioned as a messenger between himself and the King.
was around 15 years old, while his father was in the Caribbean, a
named Thomas Loe visited the Penn household and shared about the light of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
later recalled that it was during this time that "the Lord visited me and gave me divine Impressions of Himself."
attended the prestigious Oxford University. Being from an aristocratic family, he was of the prestigious group called "Cavaliers."
When the restored British government began enforcing
became critical of the King's church and began associating with the
Numerous times the younger
was arrested, and his father,
used his influence to get him freed.
urged his father: "I intreat thee not to purchase my liberty."
actions caused considerable embarrassment to his father, who had spent his career carefully avoiding political entanglements.
At one point, when young
beliefs, it so dishonored his father that the elder Penn beat him with a cane, drove him out of the house and threatened to disinherit him.
fled England and lived in France for several years.
the founder of the Quakers.
returned to England and wrote
The Sandy Foundation Shaken
, which was critical of the King's Church.
In 1668, when the government tried to force
to deny his conscience and abandon his religious convictions, he refused, resulting him being imprisoned in the
Tower of London
for eight months.
Guards gave him pen and paper, thinking he wanted to write a recantation of his beliefs, but instead,
wrote his famous work "No Cross, No Crown," stating:
"Christ's cross is Christ's way to Christ's crown ... The unmortified Christian and the heathen are of the same religion, and the deity they truly worship is the god of this world.
It is a false notion that they may be children of God while in a state of disobedience to his holy commandments, and disciples of Jesus though they revolt from his cross."
Upon being freed,
argued on behalf of the thousands of persecuted and jailed Quakers.
In Bushel's Case, 1670,
was arrested and tried.
When the jury came back with a not guilty verdict,
the judge put the entire jury in jail.
again help get his son released.
realized after his death there would be no one to intercede for his son, so he spent his final days securing a promise from
King Charles II
to be favorable to him.
Among his last correspondence,
wrote to his son:
"Let nothing in this world tempt you to wrong your conscience."
After his father death,
wanted to use his inheritance to buy West Jersey in America so Quakers could emigrate there.
THE ORIGINAL 13 - A Documentary History of Religion in America's First Thirteen States
On MARCH 10, 1681, when he met with
King Charles II
to get permission, the King surprised
by giving a
of 45,000 square miles, making
the largest non-royalty landowner in the world.
in honor of the father,
Admiral Sir William Penn.
wanted to make his colony of Pennsylvania a
where Christians of different denominations, who were persecuted in Europe for conscience sake, could flee for refuge and live together.
This was an unprecedented endeavor in the world, taking place at a time in history when Europe was predominately ruled by kings, the
was beginning its three century reign in
200,000 Ottoman Turkish Muslims
were laying siege to
Christian tolerance, Penn
named the colony's main city
which is Greek for "Brotherly Love."
Not only were
allowed in, but
Presbyterians, Lutherans, Baptists, Moravians, Mennonites,
. Pennsylvania was one of the few colonies to allow in
England's Present Interest Considered,
"Force makes hypocrites, 'tis persuasion only that makes converts."
BACKFIRED-A Nation Born for Religious Tolerance No Longer Tolerates the Religion of Its Founders
On January 1, 1681,
wrote to a friend concerning the land given to him, declaring he would:
"Make and establish such
laws as shall best preserve true Christian and civil liberty
, in all opposition to all unchristian ... practices."
Pennsylvania's first legislative act was
The Great Law of Pennsylvania,
December 7, 1682:
"No person ... who shall confess and acknowledge
one Almighty God to be the Creator, Upholder and Ruler of the World
... shall in any case be molested or prejudiced for his, or her Conscientious persuasion or practice
... but shall freely and fully enjoy
his or her Christian Liberty
without any interruption."
History records that
insisted on treating the
with honesty, paying them a fair sum for their land, resulting in his city of
being spared the Indian attacks and scalpings that other colonies experienced.
wrote to the
Delaware Indian chiefs,
August 18, 1681:
one great God
and Power that hath
made the world and all things therein
, to whom you and I and
all people owe their being
and well-being, and to whom you and I
must one day give an account, for all that we doe in the world;
This great God
hath written His law in our hearts by which we are taught and
commanded to love and help and doe good to one another
and not to doe harm and mischief one unto another ...
this great God
hath pleased to make me concerned in my parts of the world, and the king of the country where I live, hath given unto me a great province therein,
but I desire to enjoy it with your love and consent
, that we may
always live together as neighbors and friends
, else what would
the great God
say to us, who hath made us not to devour and destroy one another, but
to live soberly and kindly together in the world ...
I have great love and regard towards you, and
I desire to gain your love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable life
, and the people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things behave themselves accordingly ...
I shall shortly come to you myself at which time we may more freely and largely confer and discourse of these matters.
Receive those presents and tokens which I have sent to you as a testimony to my goodwill to you and my resolution to live justly, peaceably and friendly with you.
I am your loving friend,