Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.
Sprinkle chicken evenly with 1/2 teaspoon salt. Heat oil in a large ovenproof skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chicken; cook, undisturbed, until the underside is golden brown, about 4 minutes. Flip the chicken; arrange lemon slices around the chicken in the pan.
Transfer the skillet to the oven; bake until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest portion of meat registers 165 degrees F, about 10 minutes.
Transfer the chicken to a platter. Add lemon juice and maple syrup to the pan. Add butter, 1 piece at a time, stirring until it melts into the sauce. Stir in pepper and the remaining 1/8 teaspoon salt. Drizzle the sauce over the chicken.